Same Sex Marriage Within the Wedding Industry, Dissertation – Literature Example
Words: 2652Dissertation - Literature
Statement of Research Question
“Does the wedding industry’s traditional nature impact the experience of same sex couples in comparison to heterosexual couples? “
The topic of same sex marriage is one that is widely researched and published, current literature and research examines the marriage of same sex couples, the social acceptance of the union and legal issues that come with it but there is no research that looks at the wedding day, the experience of planning a wedding as a non traditional couple within a very traditional industry and the implications that they may face because of this compared to that of the traditional couple.
Aim and Objectives
An investigation into the experience of same sex couples compared to heterosexual couples during the wedding planning process
- To critically analyze the wedding industry’s response to the legalization of same sex marriage
- To explore the heterocentric nature of the wedding industry and its apparent exclusion of same sex couples
- To evaluate the differences between heterosexual and same sex couples interaction with the wedding industry
- To explore the issues and challenges faced by same sex couples during the wedding planning process
- To make recommendations to the industry on how to better engage with same sex couples
Overview of Primary and Secondary Sources
Primary sources consists of materials that relate directly to the object of analyses, primary sources consist of newspaper articles, web sites and magazine articles. Due to the nature of the research and outlined objectives analyses of primary sources are not relevant to this proposal.
To ensure a vast range of journal articles relevant to the topic were identified an extensive search was carried out using Boolean logic and synonyms, See figure 1.
Figure1: Synonyms Table
|Concept 1 & synonyms||Concept 2 & synonyms||Concept 3 & synonyms|
Source: Author (2013)
The online database Emerald has emerged as the most relevant academic journal database providing articles from journals such as Equal Opportunities International and Equality Diversity & Inclusion these provided articles on both the culture and social acceptance of SSC. Furthermore academic textbooks providing relevant theory such as Kerr, Christian (2012), Steinfels, Peter (2009), Mirchandani, Rajesh (2008), irshman, Linda (2007), Calò, Emanuele (2009), Caramagno, Thomas C. (2002). have been sourced to identify.
Preliminary Literature Review
As this is a preliminary literature review, these topics will be discussed in greater detail and using more sources than stated below.
The implication of a wedding is a ceremony whose central theme is uniting two people in a marriage. There is a wide variation in the styles of weddings on the basis of ethnicity, culture, geographical location, religion as well as social classes. In most cases, the occasion of weddings is characterized by an exchange of vows and other symbolic items such as wedding rings, flowers and money between the concerned couples which is followed by gifts presentation, and then the marriage is publicly proclaimed by a person of authority in the society. During the occasion, the types of gowns worn are special and the occasion has a wedding reception as a climax activity (Moats, David (2004) and Rauch, Jonathan (2004).
Same sex marriages have been documented and they involve a union involving marital relationship between two people from the same sex. This union is accorded full legal rights as well as responsibilities which are given to the contract in the jurisdiction that they take place. In a legal sense and definition, same sex marriage involving homosexual couples is common among the minority jurisdiction and it is commonly considered as a civil union that involve the legal trappings that are considered important but devoid of the term “marriage” and the conventional religious overtones applicable in the rest parts of the world. In legalization of the same sex marriages, different jurisdictions have enforced the concept of “marriage equality” (Kerr, Christian (2012), Steinfels, Peter (2009), Mirchandani, Rajesh (2008), irshman, Linda (2007), Calò, Emanuele (2009), Caramagno, Thomas C. (2002).
Same sex marriage literature (background of same sex couples?)
As indicated in the last section, same sex marriages or gay marriages entails a legal union of two individuals with similar gender, biological or sex identity. Same sex marriages or the possibility of same sex marriages in the wedding industry has received legal recognition and in most cases it has been identified as a marriage equality or equal marriage. This has led the supporters of same sex marriages to advocate for the introduction of some laws in a number of jurisdictions that validates and legalizes such unions. Smart, Carol; Heaphy, Brian; Einarsdottir, Anna (2013), Spedale, Darren (2006), Sullivan, Andrew (Editor), ed. (2004), Truluck, Rembert S. (2000) and Wolfson, Evan (2004) have documented that, the process of legalization of same sex marriages has in most cases been achieved through legislative changes in the existing laws governing marriage, or a constitutional ruling on the basis of constitutional guarantees in as far as equality is concerned, the use of direct popular majority vote, either by the use of a referendum or ballot initiative . Same sex marriages have been recognized as a contentious issue in politics, social dimension, and civil rights, religious as well as human rights issue in most of the nations on a global context. As a result, there has been an extensive debate concerning if it is appropriate for the same sex couples to be given space in the wedding industry, involve in marriage like normal people, have the rights of holding different status or be denied the rights. If such rights are considered, then the same sex marriages can offer legal protection including visitation rights to hospitals and inheritance.
Same sex marriage legalization
Research conducted by Kuefler, (2007) Rule, Antoine (2010), Christopher (2013), Jamie (2013), Hartevelt & Levy, (2012), Watkins, (2013), Giles, (2005) and Travis, (2011) indicates that, some jurisdictions in the US as well as the federal government have legally recognized same sex marriages as normal unions. Important legal issues of concern to the same sex marriage are resolute by the government’s federal system. This includes the determination of the status of the individual that includes marriage. Marriage had not been defined by the federal government until 1996 when the Defense of Marriage Act, DOMA was passed and any marriage that the state recognized was equally recognized in as far as the federal government was concerned. Other states may have failed to recognize such type of marriage but this did not make any difference in the federal government, such as the case with the interracial marriage prior to the year 1967 attributed to anti-miscegenation laws. With the passage of Defense of Marriage Act, DOMA, the limits of the definition of marriage according to the federal law were set to one man for one woman.
The possible integration of same sex marriages in the wedding industry brings about the concept of ‘sexual citizen’ and in as far as the erotic world is concerned, this is a relatively new phenomenon. It is also a new player when considered from political as well as a cultural perspective (Andrew Woodcock (2013), Browning, William (2011), Shear, Michael D. (2011) and Jacobs, Deborah L. (2012). It is an important product of novel primacy with regard to the sexual subjectivity in the modern society. Living at the auspicious stage of clandestine assert ion to space, self-determination as well as gratification, coupled with unrestricted claims of rights, justice along with recognition, sexual citizen can be considered to be a hybrid being, with a great deal of explanation concerning pace along with scale in as far as the cultural transformation plus innovative possibilities of self together with identity. Available literature (Pratt, 2012, Taylor, 2009 Boswell, 1995 and Kuefler, 2007) indicates the new angle associated with sexual citizen in the context of same sex marriages in the wedding industry as relationships democratization emergence of novel subjectivities as well as explosion of novel `stories’ concerning body, erotic as well as intimate life that in combination are responsible for signaling and encouraging the development of social as well as cultural capital, which consequently brings about innovative demands in as far as institutions of life are concerned.
The possible integration of same sex marriages in the wedding industry also leads us to the discussion of Experience Economy which has been described by scholars as the subsequent economy next to the agrarian economy, followed by industrial economy, which was the followed more recently by the service economy. Proponents of same sex marriage perceive this type of marriage as a revolution similar to the experience economy and only the people of high social status are able to cope with the changes demanded by this rapid revolutions. (George, Robert P.; Elshtain, Jean Bethke (Eds.), ed. (2006), Goss, Robert E.; Strongheart, Amy Adams Squire (Eds.), ed. (2008) and Larocque, Sylvain (2006).
Gender studies have also been given due consideration by researchers in trying to understand the possible integration of same sex marriages in the wedding industry. The study of gender theories have addressed issues of gender identity together with gendered representation with issues of women such as gender, politics and feminism being of paramount importance, men studies as well as studies involving LGBT. In most cases, understanding of gender theories is best achieved when issues of sexuality are incorporated in the topic (Cere, Daniel (2004), Chauncey, George (2004) and Dobson, James C. (2004).
According to (Pratt, (2012). Mulholland, (2012), Jowit, (2012), Taylor, 2009) and Smith, (2009), another important aspect of consideration in understanding the possible integration of same sex marriages in the wedding industry is conspicuous consumption (Pratt, (2012). Mulholland, (2012), Jowit, (2012), Taylor, 2009) and Smith, (2009). When a marriage is proposed between homosexual partners, a celebration of achievements of the rights accorded to the gays is an important consideration. In most cases, the couples involved in same sex marriages arranges for extraordinary bash weddings followed by receptions marked with conspicuous consumption. In most cases, the people involved in same sex marriages are wealthy individuals and they lack compassion as well as considerations for other people. The conspicuous consumption associated with same sex marriages involves 6-figure weddings and this can only be perceived as a sense of greed as well as selfishness by the ordinary people. Same sex marriages therefore involves money spending in conspicuous consumption and the acquisition of luxurious items that serves the purpose of displaying the extent of economic power of the concerned. The conspicuous consumption associated with same sex couples is the tool that is used to connote their social status.
Constructs of gender stereotyping
Gender is generally regarded as social construct that is responsible for defining behaviors, roles, attributes as well as activities that are held by diverse societies as being appropriate in as far as men and women are concerned (Jowit, (2012), Taylor, 2009) and Smith, (2009). Men and women have specific roles assigned to them and gender inequality may arise as a result of adopting some traits. The possible integration of same sex marriages in the wedding industry is hindered by the principle of heteronormity that describes the distinct and the complementary genders that people fall in which are important in the definition of natural roles associated with each gender. According to the principle of heteronormity, sexual together with marital relations that fits individuals from opposite are clearly stated. Heteronormative therefore aligns gender identity and biological sex to the gender roles.
The topic of same sex marriage has been addressed for many years with controversy increasing especially since the introduction of DOMA. Some states invalidated same sex marriage by making it unconstitutional through DOMA. This was therefore an adverse step for the supporters of same sex marriage and possible integration of same sex marriages in the wedding industry. Some states had legalized same sex marriage but this was overturned on introduction of DOMA and the couples were denied legal biding on the basis of the federal laws. Same sex marriage has been compared to interracial marriage after attracting a lot of debate and the two types of marriages are illegal Jowit, (2012), Taylor, 2009) and Smith, (2009). Symbolic capital, social capital, economic capital as well as cultural capital gained applicability in same sex marriage cases with the Justice reserving the powers of altering the reality and making decisions on the contents of the new rule.
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