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Short Answers Sociology, Essay Example

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Question One

Work society is a term used to describe a culture of human beings that embraces economic activities or is defined by them. Such is a society or a population that regards work as the ultimate essence of existence, and without it, life losses its meaning. It is characterized by valuing anything or activity that is regarded as work. Moreover, work society is identified by a culture that has defined basic coordinates across life spheres (Beck, 2000).  In the context of division of labour since the pre-modern societies to current modernity, various changes have occurred. The world has experienced gradual changes in work. During pre-modern societies, the familial division of labour was the order of the day. The first tier of the familial labour division is the gendered division between different sexes. The gendered division of labour was discriminative, where women were given lesser roles in society compared to men. The second tier involves the formation of the village, while the third tier encompasses the formation of the state according to the familial division of labour.

With time, the fight for recognition of women as equal to men because feminism has gradually predisposed a society that embraces integration in the work setting. In contemporary society, women are competing with men equally for different positions in diverse sectors. The idea of gendered division is being refuted at all costs in modern times as women pursue even male-dominated careers (Parry et al., 2005). The changes in terms of division of labour imply that gender discrimination will be demystified, there will be increased productivity across societies due to people embracing inclusivity, and opportunities will be more competitive.

Recession is often a challenging period in people’s lives, as is characterized by tough economic times. In Australian society, mass unemployment resulting from recession means a lack of food, a lack of finances to pay bills, and a lack of economic sustainability in the country. Food is a basic need that makes people work hard daily. Since recession results in decreased or no income among the population, many families risk starvation or malnutrition. The scarce resources that may be available in the region can trigger scrambles among the population. During the recession, many resources are scarce and can barely meet the needs of the overall population. In most cases, it is the survival of the fittest. As such, the gendered division of labour can arise as men tend to be more aggressive than women, especially in hard labour. Violent behaviours and crime rates will be on the rise in Australia, especially among the unemployed youth.

Question Two

The models of production have transformed in terms of technology. Advancement in technology and the enlightenment of society have observed a shift transformation to technology-based production and operations. Currently, most organizations and industries have shifted to a computerized model of working and robotics. Post-industrial society can be described based on changes in economic sectors, occupation distribution, axial principle, future orientation, and decision-making (Bell, 1976). In terms of the economic sector, a post-industrial society involves a transformation from a production to a service economy. In occupational distribution, a post-industrial society involves the pre-eminence of the proficient and practical class.  The focus of hypothetical knowledge as the innovation source and policy establishment for society forms the axial principle (Bell, 1976). Future orientation and decision-making involve the management of technology and the establishment of novel intellectual technology, respectively.

Due to the outbreak of COVID-19, most people in Australia engage in gig economies in 2020. Most job opportunities that most Australians engaged in have ended due to the severity of Coronavirus spread. Gig workers are often independent freelancers who work on online platforms. The gig workers can be contracted for specific tasks or can be on-call workers. The gig economy is a typical example of a post-industrial society as it offers services rather than “goods-producing” business. Professionalism and technical abilities are what defines these gig economies, and they are technology-based.

The current Australian society is working according to Marx’s concept because of the persistence of capitalism. Reality is that capitalism has never ended as different people have different power/influence in society. The industrial capitalist who deploys wealth to control systems in this society exists in contemporary communities. Moreover, regarding means of production, public workers can only get liberation once they seize the means of production (Bell, 1976). As long as the market forces control systems in society, then capitalists will always have their way and not the said workers who produce the necessary goods/services.

Although Marx’s words are still right in the current world, there is a need for people to think differently about the essence of work to attain the utmost fulfilment. Autonomy, investment, and defining the mission of an organization or work are what motivates people to work (Goeke, 2016). Seizing the means of production devoid of having autonomy, investment, or defining the mission of work might be unproductive. Consequently, society can thing differently in the context of idea technology that moulds an individual’s perspectives on the essence of work (Schwartz, 2014). Perhaps changing the idea of capitalism as per Marx’s ideology can result in a workforce that regards the system positively.

References

Beck, U. (2000). The Antithesis to the Work Society.  The brave new world of work. John Wiley & Sons.

Bell, D. (1976, May). The coming of the post-industrial society. A Venture In social forecasting. Heinemann London.

Goeke, N. (2016). Why we work summary. Four Minutes Books. https://fourminutebooks.com/why-we-work-summary/

Parry, J., Taylor, R., Pettinger, L., & Glucksmann, M. (2005). Confronting the challenges of work today: new horizons and perspectives. The Sociological Review53(2_suppl), 1-18.

Schwartz, B.  (2014). The way we think about work is broken. TED.  https://www.ted.com/talks/barry_schwartz_the_way_we_think_about_work_is_broken?language=en

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