Social and Behavioral Sciences, Research Paper Example
Words: 5156Research Paper
Sociology, a social behavioural study emphasises on the exploration of links between various aspects of the society like families, social movements, social justice, inequalities, employment, economy, religion and politics, medicine and law. (Arnold and Shinew, 1997) By considering the relationship between society and sports, besides viewing it a microcosm, the Sports Sociology plays an important role in promoting the values. Sport, as a cultural phenomenon, connects to every sphere in the society, mainly to education and knowledge promotion. (Beattle and Yeoman, 2004) There are many classes that a prospective student with an interest in Campus Recreation can take in order to increase their performance at teaching at the college level. This paper identifies various courses and describes the concepts/theories and models (CMT) associated with those classes.
KIN 409 Social Aspects of Sport
The theory of Functionalism, as a conservationist theory, supports the status quo and indicates the methods of teaching people with the fundamental values and rules they are supposed to sustain by. The theory outlines different social mechanism for bringing people together, handling social and environmental changes and teaching methods for the people in the system relevant to goals and means to attain them. (Bower and Hums, 2003) However, the immensely exaggerated statements about the positive effects of sports overlook on the likelihood that sports can offer benefits to some groups and ignoring sports as a socially constructed concept caused significant problems at the time of application of this paradigm. To this theory, Order, Stability and Societal Co-Operation are the most crucial parts and these contribute towards effective implications. (Brown, 2000) Other components linked to role allocation, offers training for performance and is completely filled by those who are able to perform in a better manner. These different sociological theories attempt at determining the functions, uses and crucial ways through which the society is organized. Professionals in Campus Recreation in sports can use concept since they are dealing with a diversity of people with different background. Having a sense of order and stability can increase the success when dealing with a group of different individuals, such as in an intramural sport with different levels of athletic ability.
Conflict Theory and Critical Theory
On the other side, the Conflict Theory by Max, indicates the sociological concepts of Sport through Conflictual representations. According to this theory, Sports (similar to other aspects of the society) are shaped and estimated by the structure of economic system in the society. The perspective of Conflict theory considers how athletes become alienated from their own bodies, commercialism, and militarism or nationalism issues. Furthermore, the theory also considers the contribution of Sport towards racism or sexism and opiate of masses. (Kuh, 1995) Critical Theory is defined as a thought focusing the examination and critique of society and culture assist in extracting knowledge from social sciences and humanities. Sociologically, this theory is oriented towards critiquing and changing the society besides orienting, understanding and explaining them. (Kuh, 1993) Use of principles associated to this theory can help the students in improving the society through integration of major social sciences, sociology, history, anthropology, psychology and several other disciplines. (Edwards et al., 2011) To this field, Sport is the central part of individual lives, and connects to major social institutions. (Knapp, 2011) It influences the culture of the society, creation of healthy relationships and team work mentalities. To understand the sociological aspects of sport, it is important that one must understand the political economy, in a way, how the money, power and society are intertwined. (Fortier et al., 2012) Social order occurs from certain groups, wherein the wealthy and highly powerful ones utilize their power to regulate their advantage. It is a known fact that, most of the students actively involve and utilize sports as an escape to gain fun and reduce the stress levels associated to the college academics and personal life. It teaches discipline and ways of maintaining healthy relationships and teamwork mentalities. As, the amount of student involvement increases at universities, so will the amount of student learning. (Edwards et al., 2011) Campus recreation activities and intramural sports provide opportunities for students to be involved at a university. Participation in intercollegiate athletics and intramural sports facilitates student-student interaction and these are forms of student involvement with the university. (Henchy, 2011) Utilization of different sociological and theoretical concepts in Sport can help the students to learn and accept the key cultural values, as well as help socialize them. (Hassan, 2007) Understanding these theories as a individual in the campus recreational sport field is extremely important as it promotes the employee to have an in-depth understanding of the reasons why individuals participate in sports, as well as the importance to each individual.
KIN410 Psychological Aspects of Sport
Sport Psychology demonstrates the influence of psychological concepts on performance and physical activity strivings. It also considers the influence of participation in Sport and Physical activity settings on psychological concepts. Emphasising on theories, perceptions, designs and methods, which capture age related differences in perceptions on cognitions and behaviours in physical activity contexts is important for the psychological development of students. An example of one such theory that explains the motivation and psychological well-being is the Self-determination theory. This macro theory of human motivation and personality focuses on the inherent growth tendencies and their innate psychological desires. To this theory, an individual can participate in a motivating and challenging behaviour for the overall personal improvement, challenge of the activity, fun and enjoyment. (Cooper et al., 2012) The theory suggests that a person is more motivated to participate in an activity when one or more of the psychological needs are met. This is based on the principles related to psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. Autonomy refers to the need to experience oneself as initiator and regulator of one’s actions. Competence refers to the need to produce behavioral outcomes, and understanding of the instruments that lead to the behavior outcome. Relatedness refers to the need to experience satisfactory relationships with others and the general social order. (Chatzisarantis and Hagger, 2009) Use of principles associated to this theory can motivate students behind the choices that they make without any significant external influence and interference. Understanding psychology can help a campus recreation specialist promote sports on campus, even for the individuals who are shy or afraid to join. Encouraging individuals that would not normally participate can help them with their social skills.
As a sub-theory of Self-Determination focusing on the competence and autonomy, this theory demonstrates the implications of intrinsic motivation and its influence by the external forces. The theory of Cognitive Evaluation explains the effects of external circumstances on the internal motivation. According to this theory, when students participate in an activity in which they feel they have control, it helps in eventually exploring the ways of how they achieve their personal goals. Besides, they gain control over the external factors with a relative decrease in intrinsic motivation. Whilst, the informational aspect enhances the student’s internal perceived locus of casualty and presumed competence, the controlling aspect enhances the external locus (like the cause and success of failure). Though, the latter aspect negatively influences the student’s intrinsic motivation, it still aims at increasing the extrinsic compliance or defiance. The final amotivating aspect enhances the perceived incompetence, undermining the intrinsic motivation, whilst promoting disinterest. The relative significance and strength of these three aspects to the student, then determines the functional salience of the event. Application of principles pertaining to this theory can help students in enjoying and spending larger amounts of time interacting in an optimally challenging activity. On the whole, the personal characteristic interaction and perceived work environment factors explored through the Sport Psychology can influence student employees in a collegiate recreational sport setting. Besides, the psychological aspects of sport can promote emotional gratification, prestige, personal recognition and underlying desire to spend more time with the existing friends. Satisfied students and employees can gain healthier, highly efficient and effective work environment. Enhanced job and study satisfaction offers students with a vested interest in sport, besides providing recognizing, comprehending and designing techniques. (Kellison and James, 2011) This theory also makes it possible to focus on the degree to which the student behaviour is self-motivated and self-determined, especially important for individuals working in this Campus recreation filed who are trying to understand student behavior. As physical activity is the highest level of self-determination for intrinsic motivation, this theory can drive students towards continuous progress with natural interest and enjoyment in sports, dancing and other activities. (Fortier et al., 2012)
KIN 415: Principles of Sport Management
Sport Management Principles
Sports Management, an interdisciplinary field, involves the process of designing and carrying out activities for the production, pricing, promotion and distribution of a sports product or service to satisfy the desires of customers. The activities in Sports Management possess all activities designed to attain the organisational objectives, needs and wants of sport students. Through exchange processes, the products are the goods, services, and idea or any combination that is designed to provide satisfaction to sport consumers. (Mullins et al., 2007) The principles of event management, facility management, sports economics, and sports finance and sport information enable in associating the advertising and public relations. Sponsors, through the principles of Sports Management, exchange money and products for the right to link their name with sporting events. Numerous marketing efforts necessitate the staff with the possession of experience in both advertising and public relations. The competence and ability of staff can help the students in determining the effectiveness. (Kaltenbaugh et al., 2011) Creating a mission statement involves full support of top management. Top management will provide a rough outline of the proposed mission statement. It is important to receive feedback from this draft from top management and lower level employees. (Shaw, 2006) In addition, understanding how management works in the Campus Recreation field, for instance, will help improve organization and increase the amount of students who participate.
Principle of Revision Management
The principle of revision management assists in approving and supporting all aspects contained in the mission statement. (Park, M. 2011) The Sport Management principles enable the companies in creating a direction. These directions aim to provide services and programs that stimulate growth, development and retention of students in a safe environment that incorporates the development of fitness and wellness, social interactions and leadership opportunities. (Kennedy, 2010) The mission statement of different sport recreation centers developed through Sport Management principles enlists a life-long learning through inclusive and valuable resources. (Cooper and Philips, 2012) These resources empower campuses to achieve, develop leaders, and serve the global community. With the Sports Management principles, organizations create mission statements and emphasize on core values. These values in turn offer the student employees in gaining knowledge and education. Values, as fundamental and key beliefs assist individuals in guiding, behavioral development, decision making and judgments. (Hassan, 2007) It is the responsibility of policy makers, management, and individual employees of users of Sport Management programs to work together to eliminate barriers for sport professionals in the workplace. (Senker, 2010) It is also necessary to develop methods and strategies to reduce the risks associated with recreational sport and intramural activities. (Satar and Caruana, 2012) A risk management plan developed through the principles of Sport Management will surely assist and this needs to be designed to engage in a quality safe environment. (Katz and Seifried, 2012) In addition, teaching these types of plans to students who intend on entering this field is a good head start strategy in order to be more successful in their profession. These are all important when working with students.
KIN508: Administration of Athletics
Administrative theory was first postulated by Henri Fayol in 1841. This principle was based on achieving the rational organization skills for different types of tasks. Through this theory, the key factors of management were identified. The two factors were forecasting and planning. Therefore, this concept believed that the most effective organizations were those that used these principles. In addition, part of the organization was using a chain of command or authority. (Gordon, 2012) In Sports, particularly, there is a chain of commands within the sport management positions. Athletics and activity directors prevail in numerous sport management positions in the profit and non-profit sectors. These individuals possess the ability to tackle sport issues together with implementing newer techniques, which felicitate the sport activity instruction. These individuals possess strong leadership skill and strive in making a difference through their in-depth knowledge of activities and athletic programming; however, their understanding needs to be complemented with the effective grasp of human resources, evaluation of performance, and skills of leadership. (Yoh, 2010) Understanding the foundations of leadership, gaining knowledge about sports content related to athletics and developing necessary research skills of program planning, ethics and evaluation is important for any administration. Different activities of administration will enable the athletics in gaining the following attributes. Tomilson (2005), referred to some different types of administration activities:
- Research skills for performance evaluation and outcomes.
- Tackling Issues and explore current trends in school athletics.
- Developing hands on knowledge on the issues of administration and other activity programmes.
- Attaining knowledge in the field of human resource management like recruiting or hiring, training and others.
- Learning effective counseling, communication and conflict management strategies and
- Demonstrating ethics, values and leadership equity.
In addition, Beattle and Yeoman (2004) provided further indications:
- Providing effective services for children, adults, elderly and other vulnerable groups of the society.
- Maintain prices at a competitive and affordable level to enable reach of all customers.
- Offering safe, clean and comfortable facility checked at least for every two hours for cleanliness, safety and damage.
- Support the development of sporting system in a fair, equitable and ethical manner.
- Embracing the spirit of all equalities and commitment to eradicate any form of unfair discrimination.
- Control and develop leisure, cultural and community facilities to meet the requirements of all residents and visitors.
Management Health and Safety
The management of Sports and Leisure facility are also responsible for health and safety of athletes and staff, who are in their charge (Kennedy, 2010). To achieve the aims required for management safety, the following should be taught to employees and prospective students in order for administration department of athletics to be successful:
- Support the sustainable provision of leisure, sports, cultural activity and public art provision. (Lindsey, 2012)
- Permit recreation and other tourist facilities to be accommodated in the country side, where they can be offered without any harm to the local environment. (King et al., 2010)
- Make sure that the new design plan for the development makes suitable provision for the new, improved and innovative facilities in 3 months.
- Safeguard the important open areas for maintaining their value of amenity and recreation and Allow improvements in the open space provision and offer effective quality and highly accessible services within five or six months.
- Refining policies, initiatives and services and in a way effectively managing the employees.
- Require first aid training and CPR training to employees.
KIN 550 Legal Aspects
Management facilities are responsible for exercising reasonable care. Reasonable care involves safety precautions that management takes in order to avoid harming the public, employees or athletes. (Geistfeld, 2011) Regardless of the size of the facility, the management should hold the responsibility to minimize the Neglect (offering inadequate and improper food), emotional abuse (being taunted or threatened), Sexual (allowing showing the pornographic material) and Physical abuse (hitting). Working staff must be competent to recognise the indicators that may reflect abuse and need to take appropriate action if needed. (Robinson, 2004) Any breach or failure to exercise a standard of care along with the risks involved may lead to damages resulting in injury. (Yoh, 2011) The foundation of the duty owed by recreation programs to their patrons and participants has been to supervise, to warn, to instruct, and to provide protective equipment. It is the duty of Sports and Recreation Centers to recognize the need to engage in proactive management activities and to reduce the likelihood of problematic tort actions. It is necessary to develop methods and strategies to reduce the risks associated with recreational sport and intramural activities. A risk management plan should be designed to engage in a quality safe environment. (Katz and Seifried, 2012).
It is the responsibility of policy makers, management, and individual employees of recreational programs to work together to eliminate legal barriers to sports professionals and staff in the workplace. Organizations need to take work-life balance lifestyle into consideration when developing human resources policies and promotion strategies for them. (Arnold and Shinew, 1997) There are many different types of legal issues that could arise. For instance, the facility may encounter exposure to hazardous substances, chemicals, or material. (Mandigo and Holt, 2000) Having a plan or action or risk management plan can ensure the safe handling, adequate health safety requirements, correct reporting methods for incidents or injuries, as well as the understanding of different diseases and dangerous gas exposure. (Moore and Driver, 2005) On a timely basis, right warning signs, with work place and clean equipments, suitable washing facilities, fit open windows, doors, gates and other safety devices (if needed) needs to be ensured. Not meeting these requirements could lead to legal issues of negligence. Negligence is the failure of one person owing a duty to another to do what a reasonable and prudent person would ordinarily have done under the circumstances. (Grillot and Schubert, 1989) Negligence contains set of elements that must be in compliance with the legal system to enforce the liability rule against the defendant. (Geistfeld, 2011). This is why it is important for education systems to teach prospective students in the sports administration field on these legal issues.
In addition, other issues in regard to risk management involve looking directly at the company itself. For instance, the actual number of staff absences, average cash spend, percentage of sports development activities, list of external funding options, direct costs incurred on the sport activities, total number of staff involved in sports development per 50,000 head of population, average number of coaching, teaching and supervision hours per 1000 head of population, and percentage of active number of course participants for coaching, teaching and supervision purpose are some of the Output and Efficiency indicators that signify the working activity and benefits of Sport and Leisure Facility should be evaluated on a continuous basis. (Robinson, 2004) The company should also promote an effective working environment and offer employees rest breaks, correct holiday entitlement and rewards. Risk assessments, regulations cover, health and safety arrangements and surveillance in a regular manner is important, when aiming to promote health and safety management. (Tomlinson, 2005) The safety of all students is an important part of any professional’s job on a campus or a recreation center.
KIN560 Gender and Sport
Gender Equality in Sports
Gender equality is an important part of the development of sports. Gender equality in sports is based on the right to ensure that women and men’s receive the same opportunities and have equal access to benefits offered in sports. (Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation) The practice of Sport is usually found to be related to a number of assumptions about works and leisure, which are often considered differently by men and women. Taking care for the sick and elderly, raising children and carrying out other work in home are the predominant duties carried out by women; however, women and sports have become increasingly popular in the past 20 years, especially with the passing of the Title IX. (Edwards et al., 2011) Sport, as a traditional issue is completely associated with masculinity. In numerous societies, it is considered to be inappropriate for women to involve in sports as they are not perceived as masculine. In addition, in some cultures, men who fail to engage in sports and those who are not talented have been labeled as unmanly. (Yoh, 2010)The enactment of Title IX has provided an equal opportunity for boys and girls and men and women and has increased the number of women who participate in sports. (Kennedy, 2010).
It is important for sports to reach gender equality, especially for woman. Participation in sports helps promote other gender equality rights in society, as well as gives woman and girls the ability to develop more skills, increase self-esteem and increase education. The passage of Title IX led a dramatic increase in the participation rate for girls in interscholastic sports. Women’s attitudes and motivational factors toward competing in intramural sports had found that the success of a female intramural sports program is dependent upon the diversity and demand of the activities offered. (Tharp, 1995) In addition, women participation in sports has been found to promote leadership skills for women and promote the ability to further education and take on leadership types of jobs, particularly in the sports field. (Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation)
Gender discrimination discriminates individuals based on their gender. In sports, as mentioned previously, males are the dominant figures. However, the enactment of Title IX has promoted the change in gender discrimination. This new era of Title IX enforcement is simply designed to enforce the current regulations and adhere to the true meaning, intent and spirit. Universities remain as important environments for men and women to engage in recreational sport programs, access and availability promote physical activity lifestyles. (Edwards, et al., 2011; Tharp, 1995)
Within gender discrimination in sports, there is also employment discrimination based on sexual orientation. Majority of states fail in providing legal protection or remedy to homosexual or bisexual employees. The competitive attitudes usually differ for both men and women and these usually persist at the heart of the game. (Park, 2011) Whilst for others, sports usually are an opportunity to get together. Being self-identified, and recognizing oneself as belonging to specific culture, race, ethnicity, group and socio-economic class or caste play an important role in determining how the individuals and students (men and women) engage in sports (Kellinson and James, 2011) The Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA) is a piece of legislation that would grant federal employment discrimination protection to homosexual and bisexual Americans. (Rhodes, 2010) The role of students in, to promote equity and social justice: climate and behavioral expectations, curriculum, social activities, access to resources, extracurricular activities and support, faculty role and reward expectations, and nurturance of a non-oppressing education environment across all aspects of social identity needs to be identified, irrespective of their gender. (Rhodes, 2010) When these factors are met in a scholastic setting, an individual’s (male or female) capabilities are less likely to be handicapped and more likely to reach full potential within their current and future academic pursuits. (Witt, and Caldwell, 2005)
The field of Social and Behavioural Science, encompassing all the different disciplines, assist the student development professionals in exploring activities and interactions amongst individuals in the natural world. (Henchy, 2011). The fields of Sociology, Economics, Anthropology, History, Counseling, Public Health and Political Science help the students and professionals in creating a dynamic environment, raising the standards and aiming for the promotion of well-being. (Gillot and Schubert, 1989) These fields also aid in improving the quality of life of a professional. In particular, Social and Behavioral Sciences is defined as the study of social behavior of individuals, groups, organizations, institutions, communities, and societies focuses on the links between different aspects of society such as, family and the economy, religion and politics, medicine and law. (Geistfeld, 2011) This systematic analysis and investigation of human behaviour through regulated naturalistic observation and disciplined scientific experimentation helps in accomplishing objective and legitimate conclusions. Through rigorous formulations and observations, the field of behavioural and social sciences investigates the decision making processes and communication strategies in a social system. (Katz and Seifried, 2012) These broad and interrelated areas offer a regulated and perceptive framework to study the processes of a social system through influence of social organisation on structural adjustment of individual and groups. The two categories, Neural decision sciences and Communication sciences deal with the decision making processes and individual functioning in a social environment. (Hassan, 2007) Social Sciences are concerned with the social and cultural context in which behavior occurs and the connection between that behavior and the setting. (Kaltenbagh et al., 2011) It gives us a closer look at human social behavior within the sports context. It is within sports sociology that the issues surrounding the relationships between individuals, groups, and sports are considered, explored, analyzed, and explained (Brown, 2000). Behavioral and Social Sciences also teach the student development professionals with necessary discipline and leadership by creating healthy relationships and teamwork mentalities. Staying active in sport activities promotes healthy lifestyles for young college students. Whilst the Social Sciences considers the issues of social inequality, social mobility, and social justice, Behavioural Science focus on ability of an individual in decision making and maintenance. Sports sociology considers the relationship between sports and society; views sports as microcosm of society (Jarvie and Maguire, 2004).
In order to become a well-rounded student in sports sociology, it is important to take the different classes that are related to the psychological, sociological and administrative aspects of student development in campus recreation sports. There are many different concepts and theories that help guide prospective students who are aimed at furthering their education in this field. These courses offer the individual methods to help increase the likelihood of their success in their job. There are multiple types of issues that could arise on the job, whether having to do with administrative tasks, such as correct written procedures, legal issues, or even gender inequality problems. The employee must know how to handle each situation and learning and developing these skills at the Master Degree level is extremely important and should be required for those entering this Campus Recreation field.
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