Specialized Diet for Renal Disease, Research Paper Example

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Research Paper

A proper diet is critical in managing renal disease. By adhering to certain restrictions, the progression of kidney failure can be reduced. The MyPyramid diet is a national standard set by the United States Department of Agriculture in 2005. Though this diet plan can be used as a general basis for most people, modifications must be made for those with renal disease.

Renal disease is a progressive kidney pathology, resulting kidney failure. Throughout the five stages, it becomes more difficult for kidneys to remove excess waste and fluids from the blood stream. Early stages of renal disease usually show no symptoms, so a diagnosis requires a blood or urine sample. When symptoms do occur, they may present as back pain, fluid retention in the face and extremities, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, changes in urinary patterns, shortness of breath, chest pains, hypertension, headaches and dizziness. Anemia may cause easy bruising and bleeding.

The main goal of treatment is to slow the progression of kidney failure. When kidneys fail, the necessary treatment is dialysis or a kidney transplant. Medications may be prescribed to treat symptoms and control blood glucose and blood pressure. A specialized diet can remove unnecessary stress from the kidneys, but can be very restrictive. Though each plan will vary with individuals, there are a few common dietary restrictions for renal disease. Protein, salt, and fluids should be reduced. Foods containing high amounts of potassium and phosphorus should also be consumed in limited amounts.

The food groups in the MyPyramid diet are separated into fruits, vegetables, grains, meat and beans, milk, and oils. The MyPyramid allows for modifications to be made for management of renal disease. Due to the necessity to restrict protein consumption, a majority of calories must be met with grains. MyPyramid recommends half of grains consumed should be whole grains; due to their high phosphorous content this could be detrimental for someone with renal disease. Eating more refined grains may be less stressful on the kidneys. Dairy is high in phosphorous and protein. Though the MyPyramid recommends three cups of milk products per day, a substitute should be consumed in place of dairy.

An example of an appropriate breakfast for someone with renal disease is one half cup of oatmeal mixed with one tablespoon of flax seed and one tablespoon of honey. A half cup of fresh blueberries may be consumed with the oatmeal or separately. One cup of fortified rice milk may be consumed. Nutritional information is 433.5 total calories, 9.0 grams of fat, 99.2 milligrams of sodium, 83.7 grams of carbohydrate, 9.3 grams of dietary fiber, 25.7 grams of sugar, and 8.9 grams of protein. No cholesterol was consumed.

Snacking helps to ensure adequate calories and keep blood sugar even. The first snack is a medium-sized apple. Total calories are 81.5, the total fat is 0.2 grams, total carbohydrates are 21.1 grams, dietary fiber is 3.8 grams, sugars is 13.8 grams, and protein is 0.2 grams. There is no cholesterol or sodium in an apple.

For lunch, the meal will consist of one cup of couscous, four ounces of portabella mushrooms, a half cup of chopped sweet bell peppers, a half cup of cubed eggplant, and a quarter cup of chopped tomatoes. The vegetables and couscous will be sautéed in two tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil and one tablespoon of balsamic vinegar. One cup of rice milk will be consumed with the meal. The total calories are 614.3, total fat is 30.4 grams, sodium is 133.6 milligrams, the total carbohydrates are 76.9 grams, dietary fiber is 5.2 grams, sugar is 0.1 grams, and protein is 12.9 grams. There is no cholesterol in this meal.

The second snack is a salad consisting of one cup of shredded Romaine lettuce, a quarter cup of dried and sweetened cranberries, 0.06 cup of crumbled feta cheese, four slices of raw onions, a quarter cup of raw carrots, a quarter cup of raw celery, and one tablespoon of extra virgin olive oil. Total calories consume are 277.3, the total fat is 16.7 grams, cholesterol is 8.3 milligrams, sodium is 158.4 milligrams, the total carbohydrates are 33.9 grams, the dietary fiber is 4.7 grams, sugar is 21.1 grams, and protein is 3.2 grams.

Dinner consists of one small baked potato with its skin and a stir-fry mixed with two ounces of cod, one cup of chopped cabbage, a half cup of carrots, one clove of garlic, one tablespoon of maple syrup, and one tablespoon of extra virgin olive oil. Total calories are 413.8, total fat is 15.1 grams, cholesterol is 31.2 milligrams, sodium is 121.5 milligrams, total carbohydrates are 54.8 grams, dietary fiber is 7.5 grams, sugars are 16.2 grams, and protein is 18.2 grams.

To educate how to modify the MyPyramid diet for renal disease, one must have an understanding of kidney physiology in addition to basic understanding of nutrition. Educational materials may include a diagram of the MyPyramid diet and information provided by the National Kidney Foundation.

Preparing a diet to benefit renal disease is important in its management. The flexibility of the MyPyramid diet allows accommodations for the necessary restrictions. By modifying the principles of the MyPyramid diet with the nutritional requirements of renal disease, people can live longer and have a better quality of life.

Work Cited

Coburn, Jack, David Hartenbower, and Arnold Brickman . “Advances in Vitamin D Metabolism  as they Pertain to Chronic Renal Disease.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 29. (1976): 1283-99. Web. 3 Oct. 2012. <http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/29/11/1283.full.pdf html>.

McDougall, John. “Diet and Kidney Health.” The McDougall Newsletter. N.p., July 2007. Web. 4 Oct 2012

“Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease” . National Kidney Foundation, 2006. Web. 4 Oct 2012 <http://www.kidney.org/atoz/pdf/nutri_chronic.pdf>.

Poggio, Emilio D., Xuelei Wang, Tom Greene, Frederik Van Lente, and Philip M. Hall.

“Performance of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and Cockcroft-Gault Equations in the Estimation of GFR in Health and in Chronic Kidney Disease .” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 16.2 (2005): 459-66. Web. 3 Oct. 2012. <http://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/16/2/459.full>.

“Recipe Calculator.” SparkRecipes: The World’s Largest Healthy Recipe Website, n. d. Web.

Web. 4 Oct. 2012. <http://recipes.sparkpeople.com/recipe-calculator.asp>.

Smith, Christine. “The USDA Food Guide Pyramid: New and Improved? Or the USDA Food

Guide Pyramid Just for You.” . North Carolina Cooperative Extension, 2005. Web. 4 Oct 2012. <http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/wayne/fcs/The USDA Food Guide Pyramid.html>.

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