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The British Library: UK Industry, UK Public, and/or UK Government, Research Paper Example

Pages: 18

Words: 4824

Research Paper

Controversy

It is a tough economy right now, and institutions are facing decreases in budgets left and right, and the BRITISH LIBRARY is no different. The UK government that pays a large portion of the BRITISH LIBRARY’s budget has decided to decrease the British Library’s budget by 15% over next 4 years, and there are proposals by the UK government to cut even substantially more than that amount. This paper plans to show how the British Library offers value to the UK government, UK industry, and/or the UK public to argue that the British Library should not get further cuts, should not have a 15% cut over the next 4 years, and should not suffer any more worse substantial cuts that are being proposed on top of the already 15% cut. Mainly, this paper will make its point by demonstrating how the British Library offers (1) economic, (2) academic, and (3) cultural value/impact to the UK. Also, this paper will share HOW the decrease the British Library will experience to their budget will affect the UK such as in what ways the British Library will not be able to perform the same tasks they used to be able to do and what does the decline or loss of those tasks actually mean for the UK public.

Introduction

The global crisis of finance is still threatening the welfare of citizens and their jobs, and as a result, their probabilities to access and utilize private and public facilities. In rigid fiscal times, people are mainly mindful of spending their tax money intelligently (Brindley, 2011). National libraries obtain state funds need to demonstrate how the money is utilized to profit both the communities and citizens in which they function. The present economic and political condition involves a strong demand to file the value of national libraries.  In addition,  national  libraries  are  undergoing  elementary  transformations  globally  caused  by essential adjustments of society, particularly  the  development of IT and  digitizing, fragmenting  of  local  communities  and the development of multiculturalism  and,  not  least,  the  constant monetary  pressure  on  the  public  sector (Debono, 2002).

The crisis of finance has a weighty effect on all these matters and is escalating the pressure on the public economy radically.  How national libraries encompass value and impact and in the multicultural and digitized communities are being investigated in modern research plus by area of qualified librarians.  In these conditions, calculations of value and ROI – Return on Investment instruments can give dominant points of view for continued backing. On the whole, a snapshot of the value that the British provides will essentially look rearward, taking into consideration current facilities and resources (Throsby, 2001). Nevertheless, are there methods to compute value going forward? In a landscape, of information that transforms every day; a view of the future of the Library value might be a significant contemplation for budgetary planning and analysis.

Prior study has revealed that the British Library encompasses economic and social impact and takes part in a responsibility, in community development.  The Library contributes  to  the economic growth  by  sustaining the school  readiness and early  literacy,  by  promoting  personnel  involvement  by offering enrollment  information and  ICT abilities, by being a purchasing power in markets of publishing and by escalating local affluence through restoration of town centers (Brindley, 2011).

The British Library does have an impact effect on the community in which they work. They maintain local society and distinctiveness, support citizens whose  key  actions  are  outside  the  labour  market,  promote  cultural  diversity and enrichment, encourage  a  sense  of  societal  solidity,  grow  confidence  in  people  and  societies, encourage creativity and imagination, health and welfare (Pung, Clarke and Patten, 2004).

The broad range of the impact of the British Library shows an elementary attribute of the Library, namely its involvedness. Contrary to other public establishments for instance, hospitals or schools that generate health care and educational facilities correspondingly, the British Library, provides a broad range of facilities directed towards extremely diverse fields of life – towards adults and children, local businesses, facilities to disabled or aged people, and the entire sector of education from play schools to universities. It as well provides a variety of facilities for relaxation time actions, individual development and improvement of personal and community abilities. Additionally, the British Library has impact and value by being a cultural and social place for meeting, a physical place, a place for studying and contemplation, and a public room.

Such a composite institution requires to be studied from a number of perspectives, and in establishing the value of the Library both its cultural, educational, informational, social and economic scope are of considerable significance.

Background Information on the British Library

The British Library was initially a division of the British Museum, and it occupied the popular circular British Museum Reading Room from mid 19th century (Pung, Clarke and Patten, 2004). It developed to be lawfully separate in 1973 and by 1997; it had relocated into its novel state of the art building. Currently, the British library is United Kingdom’s national library and the world’s biggest library on the basis of the entire number of materials. The library is a key library for research, holding more than 150 million materials from a lot of nations, in numerous languages and in a range of layouts, both digital and print: manuscripts, books, journals, magazines, videos, newspapers, sound and music recordings, patents, maps, play scripts, databases, prints, stamps, drawings (Pung, Clarke and Patten, 2004). The collections of the library comprise of book amounting close to 14 million, second just to the Library of Congress in the United States of America, along with a considerable holdings of chronological materials and manuscripts dating back to the extent of 2000.

Given that the British Library is a legal deposit, it obtains copies of all books published in the United Kingdom as well as in the republic of Ireland, and a considerable percentage of titles from overseas supplied in the United Kingdom. It as well encompasses a programme for acquirement of content. The British Library puts in approximately three million materials each year taking up 6.0 mile, which is equivalent to 9.6 kilometres of novel shelf room.

The library is a public body that is non-departmental and is financed by the Culture, Media and Sport Department. It is situated in St. Pancras, London on the north side of Euston Road amid St Pancras railway station and Euston railway station and possesses a storage center for documents and a studying area at Boston Spa, Wetherby in West Yorkshire (Pung, Clarke and Patten, 2004).

The  British  Library  takes  an  essential  role  in  the  existence  of  the  country  as  a resource of the cultural heritage  by  running,  preserving,  and  making sure  access in  time without end  to  the  national  published  records  and  the  national depository  of  sound of UK.  The  Library  is  a  vital  constituent  of both  the national  infrastructure of research  and  the  Base of UK  Science,  and  it takes  an equally  noteworthy  role  in  making sure of the UK research  excellence.  The  British  Library  encloses an immeasurable  collection  of inspirational  resources  and  expertise that  hold up  the  innovative  industries  and,  via  the  facilities  of  its Business  &  Centre of the Intellectual Property,  the Library  supports  capitalists  and Small Medium Enterprises  in  growing,  protecting and the making use of their ideas (Pung, Clarke and Patten, 2004).

The British Library generates numerous images of materials in its archives available on the internet. Its online archive provides access to images that approximate to 30,000 from a number of medieval books, plus a small number of exhibition-style materials in a format that is proprietary, for example, the Gospel of Lindisfarne. This consists of the ability to turn the fundamental pages of a small number of documents, for instance, the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Record entries for a great number of the collections of illuminated manuscript are accessible online, with preferred page images or minutes from a rising number of them, and there is a significant database of book bindings (Pung, Clarke and Patten, 2004).

Economic Benefits to the UK

Politicians and taxpayers alike are more and more calling for declines in the extent of the public sector, of which libraries are an essential part. Restrictions on the budget have caused cutbacks in financing of public overhauls in particular at the metropolitan degree. National public libraries rival with other public overhauls for instance, public health and schools for their portion of scarce resources of funding and face augmenting demands to document their worth to society (Throsby, 2001). When national libraries promote and report their economic impact, they can obtain currency as significant participants in the development of the economy. An essential challenge for national libraries is to classify and quantify their economic gains to users of the library. As well, national libraries ought to make out and take partly acknowledgment for those social upshots for which quasi-market prices or market cannot be established. Consequently, evaluating the insights of the value of national libraries in the midst of the individual society members, particularly those members who can distinguish the benefits of economic development or benefits workforce development can assist establish the extent to which a library develops a community. The British Library is said to generate the value of approximately 4.4 times the degree of its public finances. To be precise, for each £ 1 of public finances the library acquires on an annual basis, £ 4.40 is created for the economy. If the library’s public funding were to stop, the United Kingdom would experience a loss of 280 million Euros annually. Of the 363 million Euros of value created by the Library annually 59 million Euros originates directly users of the overhauls provided and 304 million Euros originates from wider society (Throsby, 2001). Conversely, the essential part of the value of the British Library reflects subsistence and selection to employ value all regions of the UK. It as well reflects a broad range of positive effects that the library creates for community and that community is aware of.

The potential impact that the Library can have on the growth of the economy cannot be exaggerated. For each Euro invested brings an increase to the gross regional product and the wages of workers. In addition, for each 2500 Euros invested in the Library, one occupation is created, illustrating the increased significance of the Library during recession. The Library makes a fiscal contribution by simply being there. The wages and salaries of the work force and acquisitions the Library do increase activities in the economy (Throsby, 2001). Subsequent to a visit of the Library customers make use of other facilities like restaurants, coffee shops and banks thus causing all of these retail activities to augment.

Following a study carried out in the UK that was in relation to the economic effect on business when a UK library closed down on strike. The revenues at retail facilities close by declined with a percentage of 23. This is referred to as a halo effect. If the British Library was to shut down, this is what could happen or even worse. The British Library has a discernible impact on the economy for instance, in holding up local shopping centers those that are emerging (Howard, 2008). This demonstrates the relation amid visits to the local shops and the use of the Library. The Library as well is seen to support the infrastructure of local tourism as it draws a substantial number of tourists.

Educational and Academic Benefits to the UK-only

The environment of higher education is expansive; customer oriented. The partnerships involving the British Library and the sector of higher education in the manner of the United Kingdom Research Reserve provides to illustrate the incredible effect that partnerships can encompass (Howard, 2008).  Not only has it reinforced the collection of the national research, it has as well made possible for libraries to convert room for utilization as learning and teaching spaces, areas of private study, cafes, shared spaces for working and is a demonstration to the success of the project. Considerable savings to estates of higher education costs imply that fundamental financial support can be employed in other essential areas.

A current research from Policy Exchange has recommended that shared overhauls could save the universities of United Kingdom to the extent of 30 percent on commodities and overhauls, however, only if there were a means around the prerequisite to settle VAT on operations that are shared or outsourced. Not just will there be economic implications, however, mutually advantageous projects amid institutions would generate improved overhauls to assist uphold the global position of United Kingdom’s higher education (Howard, 2008).

The British Library takes a central role in underpinning the Higher Education of the nation. More than 50 percent of the activities of the Library support higher education, 63 percent of all readers who are registered are academics and approximately 10,000 items are utilized in the reading rooms of the British Library by higher education readers on a daily basis. The services of the library are accessible on the basis of need to use to every university, the two million students and the 120,000 lecturers across the United Kingdom. Each and every higher education establishment makes use of the documents in the British Library supply service. The Library is well positioned to foster relations amid universities and businesses to the advantage of the economy of UK. The Library catalogues reveal contents of the collections of the Library, permit them to be realized and made use of by researchers of higher education, and are re-utilized by higher education libraries to evade replication of effort and minimize expenses. The British Library is the biggest and among the fastest document supply facilities in the planet entailing a 24 hour electronic supply and a turnaround of 2 hours. The Library offers a systematic accessibility to resources to which higher education does not subscribe. In addition, it generates opportunity costs savings for the sector of higher education not having to photo-copy non-core resources. As finances to higher education libraries are reduced and institutions evaluate where finances can be employed to best effect, there is without doubt a position for the British Library and others to maintain the sector of higher education. In the environment of substantial change in technology and the medium term challenges of finance of today, researchers necessitate pioneering initiatives, for example, a projected online version of the current National Postgraduate Training Days of the British Library that could present customized information to assist researchers obtain the most out of accessible facilities and resources. Projects like this would open up and widen access to an elevated number of researchers and facilitate more partnerships with institutions of higher education (Milne, 2007).

There are complex challenges coming, and in a number of ways, there has never been a greater time for the sector of higher education and the British Library to operate more closely and discover novel techniques of connecting up content, the expertise and data services for the advantage of UK higher education.

There has been strong substantiation for the value of the educational role of the British Library. The Library encompasses the ability to aid the entire course of community development in attempting to assist citizens who are underprivileged, to make the most of what is accessible to them. British Library has had a profound impact on the nation’s education through the events it holds at the library. Namely: the social science events. The team of Social Science Collections in conjunction with the Research panel organizes functions covering a wide variety of subjects in the discipline. These are targeted at an assortment of audiences, consisting of postgraduate scholars, experienced researchers, policy makers, practitioners and the public in general. A lot of these events are organized with associates from professional or academic establishments, for instance, the British Sociology Association (Milne, 2007).

Social Cultural Impacts to the UK-only

Heritage and Arts in the UK is amid their greatest possessions. They convey both substantial cultural and economic advantages. The function of a library in contemporary society is to tutor the community in the broadest sense. Society comprises of a variety of groups of community fitting in to one or other societal group, for instance, shopkeepers, technicians, businessmen, bureaucrats, students,   clerks, educationists,   engineers,   teachers,   doctor, mechanics, intellectuals,   agriculturists, labours, farmers, and so on. The interest of information of these various groups of people in the society is extremely much varied in line with their individual desires (Noonan, 2002). The key role of a national library, for instance, the British Library and others is to offer the best facilities of information to all those library utilizers in the community. Library and community are interdependent and interlinked. Society with no libraries has no impact, and a library with no society has no basis- it is considered as societal institution, an artifact of society for its cultural development.

A national library as a local information center has to be organized efficiently by the authority by making sure its ease of access to all segments of the society. A national library serves as a rational medium for socio-cultural expansion by offering services for the function of obtaining information and education in addition to aesthetic appreciation, research and recreation. A national library subsists to provide services for the society. It contains an extremely vital function to play in the   future   development   of   the   nation   predominantly in the educational and socio-cultural enlightenment (Noonan, 2002).

It can be contended that the ease of use of local resources for individual development is one of the vital components in the establishment of a community that is self-confident. This is a society that contains the capacity and skills and to exert an impact on the economic and political environment around it. The British Library has initiated an Asians in Britain Website and a multimedia timeline. These two formations been created for the purpose of bringing these narrations alive for a much broader crowd. Through such actions, the Library has been capable to influence the society through:

  • Individual development – consisting of formal education, after-school activities; all-time learning and training; literacy, societal, and cultural purposes through borrowing of books; leisure; development of skills; and accessibility of public information;
  • Societal cohesion – by presenting a place for meeting and centre of development of the community; boosting the confidence and profile of groups that are marginalized (Aabo, Audunson & Vårheim, 2010);
  • Empowerment of the community – by encouraging community groups and establishing a sense of access and equity;
  • Local identity and culture – by presenting community information and identity;
  • Health and welfare – by adding in to the standard of life and how well citizens feel, in addition to, providing services of health information;
  • Local economy – by presenting supporting skills development and business information.

The British Library offers openings for socialization via its restaurants, and coffee shop facilities being accessible to the public in general. Moreover, hosting of occasions in the Library bring the community together in celebration. A lot of the events which the Library hosts center on showcasing the St. Pancras region, particularly its local up coming artists, goods and businesses so as to improve local pride, the sense of community and offer better chances for locals. As a destination for tourists, The British Library draws visitors from all over the globe whom during their visit will make contact with overhaul suppliers and the community. This association can offer a better acceptance and understanding of diverse cultures. The Library’s Art Gallery, Performing Arts Centre, Museum, Science centre and State Library all add in to the enlightenment of locals of every age. The British Library promotes diversity and inclusion of the place of work through a number of its programs. At the outset, the Precinct Indigenous Enrollment program of the Library offers training and employment for Torres Strait and Aboriginal citizens thus reducing poverty in these groups. Subsequently, the Program of Migrant Work Experience, also backed by the government, encourages equal opening and diversity in the place of work.
Additionally, casual occupation within the sector of tourism offers employment for scholars, in addition to women who consist of 53 percent of the labor force in the Library.

Revenue and employment generated through the tourism of the Library offers greater advantages for the source of revenue of locals, moneywise and as well through fostering stability of the community. Enrollment in the precinct can as well aid in upholding a sense of community spirit and making sure locals do not feel out of place in a place that is frequented by tourists. The British Library is accessible for all community members as well as those with whatever impairments or disabilities, whether they are intellectual, physical or psychological. The Library encompasses disabled parking bays, regular, wheelchair ramps and bathrooms, and pool wheelchair for library visitors in wheelchairs

Historical Impact to the UK

The British Library holds one of the biggest archives for oral history in the world, entailing more than 350 collected works of a number of 60,000 recordings. It is the nationalized centre for spoken history in the UK and offers counsel and training in methods of oral history whilst preserving close contact with groups associated with oral history both in the UK and overseas. Data regarding the collections of oral history is given through the Sound collection catalogue and listeners can visit the British Library to make use of the recordings. An increasing number of dialogues are being digitized for remote internet access.

The commercial of the British Library, secure electronic service of delivery was initiated at a cost of 6 million Euros in 2003. This provides over 100 million materials consisting of 280000 article journals, 50 million exclusive rights, 5 million reports, 476000 dissertations of the United States and 433000 conference happenings for pollsters and library customers globally which were in the past unobtainable outside the Library as a result of exclusive rights limitations. In proportion to a government decree that the British Library is obliged to cover a proportion of its everyday expenditure, a payment is charged to the customer. Nevertheless, this overhaul is no longer lucrative and has caused a number of reforms to seek to avoid more losses.

In 2010, the British Library established its portal for Management and business studies. This website is planned to permit digital access to reports on management research, working papers, articles and consulting reports.

In 2011, four million pages of newspapers from the 18th and 19th centuries were availed online. The development will upload up to 40 million pages in the next decade. The library is free to search; however there is a charge for making use of the pages themselves.

Conclusion and Recommendations

The key role of a national library, for instance, the British Library and others is to offer the best facilities of information to all those library utilizers in the society. The broad range of the impact of the British Library shows an elementary attribute of the Library, namely its involvedness. Contrary to other public establishments for instance, hospitals or schools that generate health care and educational facilities correspondingly, the British Library, provides a broad range of facilities directed towards extremely diverse fields of life – towards adults and children, local businesses, facilities to disabled or aged people, and the entire sector of education from play schools to universities. It as well provides a variety of facilities for relaxation time actions, individual development and improvement of personal and community abilities. Additionally, the British Library has impact and value by being a cultural and social place for meeting, a physical place, a place for studying and contemplation, and a public room.

The British Library was initially a division of the British Museum, and it occupied the popular circular British Museum Reading Room from mid 19th century. It developed to be lawfully separate in 1973 and by 1997; it had relocated into its novel state of the art building. Currently, the British library is United Kingdom’s national library and the world’s biggest library on the basis of the entire number of materials. The Library benefits  from  legal  deposit and  is  the  key  guardian  of the written  cultural  heritage of the nation.  The    incomparable  collections of the Library have  built up  over  two centuries;  they  envelop  three  millennia  of documented facts,  represent  each  known  written  lingo,  each  characteristic  of human  thought and substantial  recordings, sound and   music collection.

Sir  Isaac  Newton  believed If  he  had  seen  more  it  was by  standing  on  the shoulder of a monster. This is what the British Library aspires to aid its users to accomplish.  In 2007 and 2008,  over  8.2  million  collection  items of the British  Library  were conferred  by,  or  lent  to,  intellectual  researchers,  private  individuals and business  researchers.  An  autonomous  study on the economic impact  commissioned  by  the  British  Library  proposed  that the  entire  value  put into the UK economy by the Library annually is  363 million Euros, or 4.40 Euros for each Euro of public endowment.

The  British  Library  takes  an  essential  role  in  the  existence  of  the  country  as  a resource of the cultural heritage  by  running,  preserving,  and  making sure  access in  time without end  to  the  national  published  records  and  the  national depository  of  sound of UK.  The  Library  is  a  vital  constituent  of both  the national  infrastructure of research  and  the  Base of UK  Science,  and  it takes  an equally  noteworthy  role  in  making sure of the UK research  excellence.  The  British  Library  encloses an immeasurable  collection  of inspirational  resources  and  expertise that  hold up  the  innovative  industries  and,  via  the  facilities  of  its Business  &  Centre of the Intellectual Property,  the Library  supports  capitalists  and Small Medium Enterprises  in  growing,  protecting and the making use of their ideas.

Ever since  the  early  1970s,  the  British  Library  has  complemented  Government financial support  with  additional  resources  of  income  in  a  mixed  economy  as well as generation of commercial  revenue,  additional public  financial support  (for instance, from councils of research)  and  patronage. Library  fund raising  has  been  instituted  over  the  last  decade  with benevolent income from  persons and  establishments  now supporting a variety  of  idiosyncratic  projects  in  areas,  for example,    acquisitions of heritage, conservation,  gallery  space, digitization,  and  initiatives of learning.  The library as well has a developing legacy programme.

At the same time as recognizing that the adjustments to the allotment  of shares  will  encompass an  effect on  the  financial support distributed  to charitable  and  community division institutes  by  the  Big  Lottery  Fund,  the  British  Library  receives  the  proposal  of the Government to  re-establish  the  share  of  distribution  for heritage  to  18 percent  in 2011  and  afterward  to  20 percent  in  2012. Re-establishing  the  shares  acquired  by  HLF  from  the  NLDF – National  Lottery Distribution Fund  will most certainly  be  advantageous  to the broader heritage segment. More  in particular,  escalating  the  amount  HLF  is  capable  to  issue  in grants  through  the  re-establishment  of  the  shares  to  the initial level  will encompass  a  positive  effect  on  the  British  Library  and  the  broader  sector of Museums, Archives and Libraries.

Although there might be a decline in financial backing, there  is  the probability  for  the  British  Library  to  profit  both  indirectly and directly  and from  the  re-establishment  of  shares.  The  resultant  boost  in  the backing  that  HLF  is  capable to  issue  is  likely  to  augment  the  percentage of  thriving  functions  from  the  sector of Museums,  Archives and Libraries.  An  enhanced  rate of success for  applications  could  contain  an instant  and  positive  effect  on  the  British  Library  with regard to its own  functions  to  HLF,  however,  is  also  expected  to  profit  the  Library  by offering  supplementary  support to  our present and  likely  future  associates in  the  division,  as  augmented  funding  will  put up  their  capability  to  work  with us.

The  timing  of  the  restoration  of  the  shares  also  has  the  potential  to benefit  organizations  in  the  sector,  including  the  British  Library,  by enabling them  to provide opportunities  for more  people to  engage  in  the Cultural  Olympiad,  for example.  Enhancing  the  level  of funding  HLF  can make  available at a time  when  other sources  of public funding are  under increasing  pressure  will  also  be  of  great importance  to  the  sector,  as  it adjusts  to a decrease in  statutory funds.

References

Aabo, S., Audunson, R. & Vårheim, A. (2010). How do public libraries function as meeting places? Library & Information Science Research 32 (1), 16-26.

Andretta, S. (2005). Information literacy: a practitioner’s guide. Oxford: Chandos Publishing.

Big Lottery Fund. (2007). Lottery £80 million modernising makeover for England libraries. Press release, 30 October 2007. www.biglotteryfund.org.uk/pr_301007_eng_cl_modernising_makeover?

Brindley, L. (2011).Growing knowledge: the British Library’s strategy. Retrieved from http://www.bl.uk/aboutus/stratpolprog/strategy1115/strategy1115.pdf

Debono, B. (2002). Assessing the social impact of public libraries: What the literature is saying. Aplis 15 (2), 80-95.

Howard, P. (2008). The British Library, a treasure of knowledge. London: Scala.

Milne, R. (2007). A sure foundation? Research libraries in the digital age. Retrieved from http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/media/Inaugural%20Lecture.ppt

Nicholas, T. (2009).Cheaper patents. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://people.hbs.edu/tnicholas/Cheaper%20Patents.pdf

Noonan, D. 2002. Contingent valuation studies in the arts and culture. Chicago: University of Chicago

Pung, C., Clarke, A. and Patten, L. (2004).Measuring the economic impact of the British Library. New Review of Academic Librarianship, 10(1)

Throsby, D. (2001). Economics and culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wachowiak, H. (2006). Tourism and borders: contemporary issues, policies, and international research. London: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd

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