Back to School Offer

Get 20% of Your First Order amount back in Reward Credits!

Get 20% of Your First Orderback in Rewards

All papers examples
Get a Free E-Book! ($50 Value)
HIRE A WRITER!
Paper Types
Disciplines
Get a Free E-Book! ($50 Value)

The Destruction of the Janissaries, Essay Example

Pages: 11

Words: 2926

Essay

Introduction

The disintegration of the Janissaries made certain aspects of the Ottoman Empire possible, but others were challenging. The state could now tax the Janissaries, who had previously been free from taxation. Even without the Janissaries, the Empire could acquire the officials the people wanted. The removal of the Janissaries enabled the army to recruit new strong soldiers without the regiment. The army could now recruit fairly and preserve military loyalty without the Janissaries’ influence. The administration institution could now operate without favoritism, and the fragmentation prevented soldiers from perpetuating martial traditions. The Empire’s first task after the Janissaries was to avoid war. After the Janissaries disintegrated, the army found it impossible to remain involved in Empire affairs. Finally, administration attempts requiring Janissaries troops’ involvement were compromised, and the Janissaries’ dissolution terminated many significant Ottoman victories[1]. The dissolution brought some possibilities on certain matters, but at the same time, some of the military operations were deemed impossible without the Janissaries.

Opportunities Created by the Destruction of the Janissaries

Following the Abolition of the Janissaries, the Empire was able to get the leadership that the people wanted, without the control of the Janissaries. Janissaries were becoming King Creators by the time of the incident. Initially, the Janissaries all were captives swore to the Ottoman Empire’s sovereign, but their regiment stayed formally tied to the ruler till one of them was eliminated. Nevertheless, the Janissaries gradually started to understand the “emperor” component of the vow to refer to the office – rather than any single man – that resulted in troops rallying against it and overthrowing any emperor they didn’t favor. The Janissaries were engaged in several coups, employing economic and military power, rendering them undisputed king builders and the Civilization’s leading political force. However, their power faded following their demise, and they no longer influenced the Empire’s leadership selection[2].

The destruction of the Janissaries enabled the state to collect taxes from them since they had previously been exempt from taxation. The Janissaries were initially made up entirely of captives who were all pledged into allegiance to the monarch. This rendered taxing the Janissaries superfluous because they didn’t make much money, to begin with. Nevertheless, as years progressed, the laws and policies governing Janissary recruiting altered. People with a steady income were eventually permitted to join Janissaries, and Janissaries became able to do business and benefit from it. As a result, they became an exclusive group in society, wielding immense military strength while remaining tax-exempt. Naturally, the remainder of the Empire was filled with envy and anger due to this arrangement. However, after the regiment was dissolved, they were required to participate in other economic pursuits and pay taxes.

Following the elimination of the Janissaries, it was now feasible to carry out military improvements. Sultan Mahmud’s tenure is distinguished by the consolidation and reformation of the centralized power. Army changes were implemented following the dissolution of the Janissary army in 1826[3]. For just an extended period, various security problems were addressed. Significant modifications to the organizational context could only be implemented towards the conclusion of the sovereign’s reign. Ancient organizations were reformed in a manner reminiscent of the Western paradigm3.

The Abolition of the Janissaries allowed for the recruitment of fresh, powerful men into the army without the impediment of the regiment. With the Janissaries successfully exterminated, Mahmud II was allowed to go on with his ambitions to modernize the Ottoman army. He promptly replaced the Janissaries with just a new army unit called the Victorious Troops of Muhammad. However, the improvements arrived too late3. Russia invaded first before fresh soldiers could’ve been trained properly, and the Empire could suffer enormous casualties in the ensuing war and treaties. The Ottomans had made themselves unprotected by going to battle with their very own troops. It would be demolished in 100 years3.

Furthermore, the military could now undertake fair recruiting and maintain military allegiance even without Janissaries’ involvement following their elimination. Once the Janissaries were constituted, the intention was to include only captives kidnapped as youngsters and forcefully Christianized. Initially, the Ottomans had a plethora of Christian tributary kingdoms to care for such youngsters, who were frequently voluntarily handed up by their relatives in the expectation of a brighter future. Nevertheless, as the Civilization’s requirements and the Janissaries’ prominence expanded, the recruiting procedures deteriorated. Initially, native-born descendants of Janissaries were permitted to participate, and after that, any Believer of any faith born inside the Ottomans was allowed to join. This weakening of norms quickly resulted in a significant loss of allegiance among the Janissaries, pitting them instead of a slew of sultans. The demolition in 1826 ended Janissaries’ prominence in the recruitment and selection process and encouraged martial loyalty, something Janissaries lacked[4].

The Sultans could live peacefully without fear of the Janissaries rebelling against them. Because of his lengthy government and social power, Mahmud II was undoubtedly hesitant to declare war on the Janissaries out from the sky. Fortunately for him, the Janissaries tended to rise against sultans, and they did so quickly in reaction to Mahmud’s efforts to modernize the Ottoman army. Essentially, because the Janissaries refused to accept any of the reforms he was attempting to implement, Mahmud II began building a separate force behind Janissaries’ backsides. Unsurprisingly, this fueled Janissary discontent, and soldiers marched to the squares to oppose the move, kicking off the Illumination Crisis. Many scholars consider that Mahmud II purposely instigated the Janissaries’ revolt, believing it would allow him to carry out his big commitment and eliminate them[5].

Following the Abolition of the Janissaries, their dominance in politics and money creation was eliminated. The Empire could conduct bias-free politics and preserve parity in wealth formation. The Janissaries were once the glory of the Ottomans, but then that era was far past by the moment the nineteenth century arrived. The Janissaries had grown into a bloated body that was considerably more concerned with lobbying politicians, amassing riches, and forming a coalition than defeating significant wars. The reality that Janissaries did not pay customs didn’t help things, and the ultimate consequence was a widespread people that despised the Janissaries. According to some tales, ordinary citizens assisted in the struggle against them for the skirmishes that directly led to the Auspicious Incident. The general public despised the Janissaries that people joined the battle against them[6].

The auspicious devastation inspired the Star Wars Prequel trilogy. Followers of the Star Wars series may have already seen parallels between the Auspicious Event and a scenario from the spinoff flicks. It appears that the authors of Anger of the Vader were inspired directly by Mahmud II’s conduct. Chancellor Palpatine enacts Rule 66 over generations of preparation in the picture. Palpatine attempted to exterminate the Knights, echoing the fight among Mahmud and the Janissaries. Both Palpatine and Mahmud eliminated their opponents and solidified their authority inside one spectacular occasion with a scary appellation. Regrettably for the Janissaries, none Luke Skywalker apparition was hidden in the dunes to rehabilitate their regiment, and they just vanished[7].

The disintegration of the troop cleared the ground for revolutionary activity. The breakdown of the Janissary Brigade was, in and of itself, undoubtedly Mahmud’s most excellent revolutionary move as Sultan. Still, it was also one of the most arduous tasks he faced throughout his time in power. A decree declaring Mahmud’s wish to abolish the Janissary Corps was issued in May 1826. It had both archaic and progressive language, creating a rare combination of the two writing styles. Mahmud authorized the creation of multiple new military and medical institutions as evidence of his belief that the Janissaries required removing and replacing force guided by reasoning and ‘by science,’ which demonstrated his devotion to this assertion. On the other hand, in almost the same decree, Mahmud said that the objective of this great army would have been to ‘demolish the armory of martial innovations of infidel Europeans,’ a phrase that was probably used to appease orthodox opponents inside his government[8].

The administration’s procedure could now proceed without the meddling of privileged groups, as was previously the case. On the 15th of June 1826, Mahmud put his decree into force and dissolved the Janissaries, an occurrence that would come to be regarded as “the fortunate occurrence.” The Janissaries angrily protested Mahmud’s decision and marched to the marketplaces of Constantinople to demonstrate their dissatisfaction with the ruling. Numerous thousand people were killed during a day of fighting between state troops and the Janissaries, but eventually, control was reinstated, and the centuries-old armed corps was disbanded[9].

Additionally, the disintegration made it possible to protect military tradition from becoming entrenched in the ranks of the troops. This was a revolutionary choice by Mahmud since the Janissaries had been in existence since the thirteenth century and were a firmly rooted military tradition in the country. The Janissaries were designed to be an elite force of troops, and they were formerly the greatest shining examples of the Ottoman army, and they have been once considered the best in the world. By the nineteenth century, meanwhile, Malcolm Yapp contends that they had devolved into nothing more than ‘town bullies,’ who took advantage of the position of luxury that their position afforded them to stir up trouble. They were free from taxes and presented a threat to the Ottoman state due to the disproportionate amount of power they wielded compared to the rest of the population. According to Mahmud, the Janissaries’ elimination was required to regain peace to the Ottoman monarchy and the Ottoman Empire3.

What Was Missing Without the Janissaries

When the Janissaries were withdrawn, the Empire’s first challenge was maintaining peace. The Janissaries rejected the Ottoman military’s acceptance of European reform measures nineteenth century. Their demise occurred in the so-called Eventful Tragedy in June 1826. The Janissaries rebelled after witnessing the establishment of new, Western influence soldiers. Sultan Muhammad II launched a war on the insurgents and ordered artillery fire targeted at their quarters when they refused to surrender. Because of the disputes that emerged due to the disintegration, such acts jeopardized peacekeeping efforts. Unfortunately, most of the Janissaries were murdered, and even those brought captive were beheaded[10].

It was difficult for the army to continue its involvement in Empire concerns after the disintegration of the Janissaries. The Bektashis rose to prominence when they controlled the Janissaries; an exclusive Ottoman cavalry force conscripted from Christian areas. After the Mounted cavalry was dissolved in 1826, their impact declined. However, the group saw a renaissance afterward in the century, with the monastery’s restoration and blooming of intellectual production in Turkey and Albania. Following the dissolution of the Sufi groups in Turkey in 1925, the Briquette leaders relocated to Albania. Bektashi’s contemplative prayer was continued by groups in Turkey, Albania, portions of the Adriatic, and the U.S. after religion was outlawed in Albania in 1967. Because of the demise of socialism in Albania in the early nineties, Bektashi practices were restored[11].

Governmental activities that needed the participation of Janissaries forces were jeopardized due to the abolishment. For instance, Mahmud established the governmental cabinet system, supplied a census and a land questionnaire among his government initiatives. He launched a mail service, but such processes were nearly impossible because Janissaries were required to maintain order during the census and educational institutions. He instituted compulsory elementary education in the education sector, established a graduate program, and sent scholars to Europe. All of these endeavors were hampered by a series of military losses and secessionist rebellions that had previously persuaded Mahmud of the necessity for changes in his troops and governance[12].

Efforts to expand Ottoman rule in European regions, mainly Greek, Yugoslavia, and the monarchies, were thwarted by the Abolition of the Janissaries. A Greek uprising arose due to the Napoleon Battles’ financial strength and introduction to West European ideals, and that was a response towards Ottoman authoritarianism. The revolution was prompted by plans of select academics organized through the political faction Philik Etairea and headed by Alexander Ypsilantis. They entered Transylvania in March 1821 due to peasant and criminal resistance to Ottoman rule. Although Ypsilantis was defeated, an insurrection in the Peloponnese started. A deadlock occurred, but the Ottomans were bolstered by Egyptian forces in 1825 and prepared to crush the insurrection. The defeat of the joint Ottoman and Egyptian navies at Navarino in the southern Peninsula by Russians, Frenchmen, and English warships on the 20th of October, 1827, stopped Islam from supporting their army and rendered Greek sovereignty unavoidable. The Sultan was obliged to accept Greek freedom and autonomy in 18293.

The Abolition of the Janissaries ended the troop’s meaningful contributions to several important Ottoman victories, including the conquests in the summertime of 1453, the combat against the Tehran Abbasids at Chaldiran in 1514, as well as the subdue of the Mamluk military forces at Marj Dabik in 1516. Amid many of these clashes, the Janissaries delivered the ultimate powerful blow witnessed a string of preparatory attacks, generally in a barrage of gunshots. Each of these clashes bolstered European ideas of the Mounted cavalry regiment as an Ottomans “weapon of choice” capable of using weapons more successfully than any opponent. The conflict of Mohacs in 1526 was perhaps the pinnacle of Janissary triumph, with Janissaries slaughtering hundreds of Hungarian equestrians with precision rifle barrages. Many contemporary commentators claimed that the character of the Janissary regiment deteriorated in the 16th century, once the offspring of Vassals and natural-born Moderate Muslims were allowed to participate, and the army’s servant restraint was jeopardized.  However, with the Empire’s fall, such operations from the Janissaries were no longer available[13].

Following the abolishment of the Janissary Brigade, it was recognized that the people’s views and ulama’s strongest support strength were gone, and social resistance was reduced. Whenever the janissaries’ financial statuses and governmental duties were abolished along with the Emancipation, elite kalemiye and the centralized authorities were recognized as a powerful class in the nation against the ulama and the citizens. So because janissaries who pushed for financial stabilization, opposing programs such as Taşiş had gone, such democratic flexibility in judgment procedures had a crucial role in seeing the Ottoman Civilization’s quickest Taşiş program. The respite from administering the Taşiş strategy also had a part in the industry’s inflation impact following the Abolition. Nevertheless, it has been noted that the Abolition had a deflationary effect on the economy in the near run. Based on the need for cereals, it is possible to conclude that this condition is connected to a decrease in sales. Furthermore, after the personnel-based organization, the new military structure carried a new idea of a centralized military, as well as further isolation and, eventually, centralized in the finances. The groundwork for the new follows the pattern laid at this time. Finally, as a consequence of the centralization effort, one of the most significant outcomes of Emancipation was the establishment of the Maliye Nezareti (Ministry of Finance) inside the 1830s.15.

Conclusion

Some features of the Ottoman Empire were made feasible with the dissolution of the Janissaries, while others were made difficult. The destruction of the Janissaries enabled the state to levy taxes from them, as they had previously been exempt from taxation. Following the Abolition of the Janissaries, the Empire was able to get the officials that the people demanded, even without control of the Janissaries. The Abolition of the Janissaries allowed for the recruitment of fresh, strong men into the army without the impediment of the regiment. Furthermore, the army could now undertake fair recruiting and maintain military allegiance without the Janissaries’ influence following their elimination. The administration institution could now proceed without intervention from favored groups, and the disintegration allowed martial traditions to be preserved from perpetuation by the troops. However, after the Janissaries were gone, the Empire’s first challenge was to prevent conflict. It was difficult for the army to continue its involvement in Empire concerns after the disintegration of the Janissaries. Finally, administration efforts that needed Janissaries’ participation were jeopardized, and the breakdown of the Janissaries ended substantial accomplishments made by the army to many critical Ottoman successes.

Bibliography

Akyıldız, Ali, and M. Şükrü Hanioğlu. “Negotiating the power of the sultan: the Ottoman Sened‐i İttifak (Deed of Agreement), 1808.” The Modern Middle East: A sourcebook for history (2006): 24-30.

Howard, Douglas A. A History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press, (2017): 1 – 412

Reed, Howard Alexander. The destruction of the janissaries by Mahmud II in June 1826. Princeton University, 1951. 1 – 364

Salzmann Ariel. “The old regime and the Ottoman Middle East: Ariel Salzmann.” In The Ottoman World, (2011): 409-422.

Tezcan, Baki. “The Second Empire: The Transformation of the Ottoman Polity in the Early Modern Era.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 29, no. 3 (2009): 556-572.

Zürcher, Erik-Jan. Fighting for a Living. Amsterdam University Press, Work Around the Globe: Historical Comparisons and Connections (2013): 11 – 687

[1] Reed. The Destruction of the janissaries by Mahmud II in June: (1826): 1

[2] Howard. A History of the Ottoman Empire: (2017): 1 – 412

[3] Reed. The Destruction of the janissaries by Mahmud II in June: (1826): 51

[4] Tezcan. The Transformation of the Ottoman Polity in the Early Modern Era: (2009): 556-572.

[5] Salzmann. The old regime and the Ottoman Middle East: (2011): 409-422.

[6] Reed. The Destruction of the janissaries by Mahmud II in June, 1826: (1951): 263

[7] Akyıldız, & Şükrü. Negotiating the power of the sultan: (2006): 24-30.

[8] Tezcan. The Transformation of the Ottoman Polity in the Early Modern Era: (2009): 570.

[9] Reed. The Destruction of the janissaries by Mahmud II in June: (1826): 320

[10] Zürcher. Work Around the Globe: Historical Comparisons and Connections: (2013): 116

[11] Zürcher. Work Around the Globe: Historical Comparisons and Connections: (2013): 121

[12] Salzmann. The old regime and the Ottoman Middle East: (2011): 414.

[13] Zürcher, Work Around the Globe: Historical Comparisons and Connections: (2013): 11 – 687

Time is precious

Time is precious

don’t waste it!

Get instant essay
writing help!
Get instant essay writing help!
Plagiarism-free guarantee

Plagiarism-free
guarantee

Privacy guarantee

Privacy
guarantee

Secure checkout

Secure
checkout

Money back guarantee

Money back
guarantee

Related Essay Samples & Examples

NARAL-Pro-Choice America, Essay Example

NARAL-Pro-Choice America (NARAL) is a social-liberal institution formally known as National Abortion Rights Action League. The organization involves political events and advocates for enhancing access [...]

Pages: 3

Words: 861

Essay

Religion and Gender, Essay Example

Religion and gender are the main reasons I am being discriminated against at the workplace. The discrimination results from fewer females in the workplace, and [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 338

Essay

The SDoH Initiatives in the Community, Essay Example

There are many civic participation activities in which people get involved. I have been involved in voting as one of these events. I chose the [...]

Pages: 4

Words: 1117

Essay

Planning for the Financial Aspects of Retirement, Essay Example

A financial action plan is a written down plan indicating the strategies and considerations used to manage money to achieve goals and secure a financial [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 394

Essay

3RD Party Intervention, Negotiation, or Mediation, Essay Example

Conflicts may arise, needing various methods of conflict resolution to see through the managing of conflict and possible resolution. In the intervention of conflict, third [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 344

Essay

Why Stricter Gun Laws Are Not Needed in the US, Essay Example

Introduction Whenever guns are mentioned, many people often think of the negative impact on society. This is understandable, especially following recent incidents of mass shootings [...]

Pages: 3

Words: 925

Essay

NARAL-Pro-Choice America, Essay Example

NARAL-Pro-Choice America (NARAL) is a social-liberal institution formally known as National Abortion Rights Action League. The organization involves political events and advocates for enhancing access [...]

Pages: 3

Words: 861

Essay

Religion and Gender, Essay Example

Religion and gender are the main reasons I am being discriminated against at the workplace. The discrimination results from fewer females in the workplace, and [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 338

Essay

The SDoH Initiatives in the Community, Essay Example

There are many civic participation activities in which people get involved. I have been involved in voting as one of these events. I chose the [...]

Pages: 4

Words: 1117

Essay

Planning for the Financial Aspects of Retirement, Essay Example

A financial action plan is a written down plan indicating the strategies and considerations used to manage money to achieve goals and secure a financial [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 394

Essay

3RD Party Intervention, Negotiation, or Mediation, Essay Example

Conflicts may arise, needing various methods of conflict resolution to see through the managing of conflict and possible resolution. In the intervention of conflict, third [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 344

Essay

Why Stricter Gun Laws Are Not Needed in the US, Essay Example

Introduction Whenever guns are mentioned, many people often think of the negative impact on society. This is understandable, especially following recent incidents of mass shootings [...]

Pages: 3

Words: 925

Essay

Get a Free E-Book ($50 in value)

Get a Free E-Book

How To Write The Best Essay Ever!

How To Write The Best Essay Ever!