In chapter five of his book, Joralemon discusses the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases in recent decades. The author employs several strong points about these developments, and concludes that the rise of these diseases is the result of human actions. The industrial revolution is identified as an obvious source of pollution that created an ideal environment for disease development in many societies. Continuing changes in socio-economic behaviors led to the neglect of many disadvantaged members of society, exposing them to an increased risk of contracting an infectious disease. The SARS situation was largely the result of increased international travel and the spread of multiculturalism throughout the world. Additionally, the shortage of fresh water in many areas has led to the continual reuse of the fluid, even when there is a high potential for infection. A final realistic but startling concern is the threat of bioterrorism use as a direct result of human decisions. Based on the strength of these arguments, I agree with Joralemon’s views about the creation, evolution, and spread of infectious diseases.The next chapter of the book addressed the threat of potential challenges to biomedical authority. Some of the barriers discussed include the move toward focusing on public health, prevention, and community involvement. I don’t agree with the author on this point, because the proper management of new socially-forward methods of healthcare delivery will include evidence-based strategies that will be highly reliant upon the authority of biomedical researchers. Joralemon’s concerns may be fueled by the desire to preserve professional acknowledgements.