The Industrial Revolution, Essay Example

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Essay

The European Industrial Revolution and its Influence in the World

Industrial revolution was a period between the year 1750 and 1850. The period showed changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology. This transformation and changes influenced the society’s social, economic, and cultural conditions. The revolution started in the United Kingdom, and it spread throughout Western Europe. The revolution continued to Western Europe, then North America and to Japan. This revolution in the end spread to the whole world (Berlanstein, 2003).

The industrial revolution marks changes in history and changes in the day to day life among people. During this period of the industrial revolution, the incomes earned by people increased and the population increased. The population of people during this time increased six times, and the incomes increased ten times during this period of the industrial revolution on Europe (Hodgson & Burke, 1993).

In Great Britain where the industrial revolution started, the country made laws and introduced new cultures that enabled the businesspersons to be the leaders in the industrial revolution. In the end of the eighteen century, there were transformations in parts of Great Britain from the use of manual labor to the use of machines in the production of goods. This started with the use of machines in the textile industry. The industrial revolution, whose origin was in Great Britain introduced iron making techniques and it also, increased use of refined and more developed coal (Hodgson & Burke, 1993).

During the European industrial revolution, trade increased between nations. This then led to the transformation of the canals, new and improved roads, and railways. The economy transformed from that that depended on agriculture to one that depended on machines in the manufacture of goods and services. During the industrial revolution, there were several cases or rural to urban migration. This led to the increase in the number of people in the towns and cities.

During the industrial revolution, the introduction of steam power used in the textile and clothes industry led to increase in production of goods. The use of the machines expanded from Europe to the other countries and thus transformed the countries during the nineteenth century. This changed the society positively (Berlanstein, 2003).

The first industrial revolution that started in the eighteen century eventually connected to the second industrial revolution in the year 1850. This period came along with the technological progress. At this time, the ships and railways used steam power. The European revolution influenced the society due to technological change in the year 1830s.

During the industrial revolution, the transformations that had occurred were as a result of the innovations that occurred in the second half of the eighteen century. In the textile industry, changes occurred in cotton spinning. The innovations by Richard Arkwright of the water frame, the Spinning Jenny by James Hargreaves and Spinning Mule of Samuel Crompton transformed the textile industry throughout Europe. This influenced the production of cotton and the innovations helped in spinning yarn and flax for linen. This started in Derby.

The stem power also transformed Europe during the industrial revolution. James Watt came up with the steam engine, which pumped water out of mines, and it was also useful in powering other machines. The steam engine enabled the transformation of the factories, and they became more efficient. During this time, steam helped to generate power. The reliance on people to provide power reduced at this time. The steam engine was also vital in providing power for several years and transformed the industries. During the revolution, iron was smelted using coke instead of coal. This transformed the iron industry. The steam engine, fired by coal, replaced the water wheel for driving factory machinery.

The European Industrial Revolution transformed because of the machine tools that were developed. These machines were developed by various craftsmen. Metals, particularly steel and iron, replaced wood in the construction of harbors, bridges, machinery and railway tracks. Coal that was mined helped to heat and warm houses and industries. The railway locomotives and steam ships used coal. Businesses grew with others being family partnerships that gave way to joint stock companies and eventually to independent businesses.

With industrialization, capital became a requirement. Individual savings could not sustain businesses thus landowners invest their surplus rent incomes in the industrial sector. During the industrial revolution, credit banks were established, and they attracted savings from small investors thus enabling the establishment of many industrial enterprises. During this revolution, workers specialized in the production of various goods. They assumed different roles such as manufacturer, wholesaler, and retailer. Specialists performed the roles of bankers.

This influenced the world and Europe both economically and socially. The social structure changed during the European industrial revolution. The middle class of industrialists and businesspersons triumphed over the class of the nobility and gentry. The period of the industrial revolution led to job creation among people. There were harsh working conditions for the workers during this period. Child labor, long working hours, and dirty living conditions became prevalent in this period.

The European industrial revolution occurred due to the need by nations to become strong in the production of goods for their countries. This was also increased by the availability of raw materials from Africa. The colonization of Africa was a result of the search for markets of finished goods. Africa also acted as a source of inputs for the industrialization process.

References

Berlanstein, L. R. (2003). The Industrial Revolution and Work in Nineteenth Century Europe.     New York: Routledge.

Hodgson, G. S. & Burke, E. (1993). Rethinking World History: Essays on Europe, Islam, and    World History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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