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The Role of Personal Charisma, Essay Example

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The Role of personal Charisma in Political and Military Careers of the Caudillos

During the 19th century, in American history, the Caudillos were military leaders who ruled through a dictatorship form of leadership. The Caudillos were among the prominent figures in Latin American history that mostly used dictatorship tactics to acquire land ownership rights from other citizens within the state. During the world wars and liberation wars, the caudillos would recruit troops to participate in battles where they dictated upon the participants in the world wars (Gómez-García,2021). However, the Caudillos form of leadership was perceived to act as a barrier against the supremacy law within the state.  In the 19thcentury, most Caudillos originated from wealthy families in civilized cities linked to bureaucratic and prominent people regardless of being military members. To effectively implement their leadership skills, the Caudillos had to socially interact with the local authorities within the rural areas to understand their social norms and culture as well (Kuzma, 2021). The emergence of the Caudillos was linked to the proper interpretation of state legislation. The Caudillos even acted as mediators to enhance the implementation of the state law within the American territory.  Because of this reason, the Caudillos enjoyed massive support due to their advocacy of the state law.  The Caudillos’ possession of charismatic skills played a significant role in ensuring that their political and military participation was successful during the 19th century because of the ability to influence and inspire many citizens (Andrews-Lee, 2020).

Through possession of individual charisma among the Caudillos greatly helped to influence large groups of people who believed in the leadership as military members. The Caudillos created social relations with the American citizens to promote successful and long- political and military careers that last in American history. The implementation of charismatic leadership skills helped the Caudillos encourage an interactive form of leadership (Moffitt, 2020). This aspect served as a successful tool in creating and maintaining successful and reputable political careers in American history. Also, the possession of individual charisma helped the Caudillos motivate and impact confidence among the American citizens, who were the significant followers and supporters of the Caudillos. The American citizens perceived the Caudillos as superhuman with supernatural powers, an aspect that led to successful military careers (Benjamin, 2021). During their leadership period, the Caudillos practiced both hard and soft power to achieve political and militia success in Latin America. The hard power consisted of the use of threats which were mainly associated with frequent firing and demotion. The Caudillos were known to use coercive measures during their leadership period, which led to militia success (Benazir, 2019).

Further, coercive power was used to improve the existing managerial system, which made the Caudillos gain political success in the 19th century. This further was used to instill fear and intimidation among the citizens who made the Caudillos achieve militia success in military leadership.  The Caudillos issuance of threats to the American citizens helped to attract more followers and supporters, which helped to acquire political achievement within the American state (Johnson, 2015). The fact that most American citizens and Caudillos’ supporters feared being intimidated helped in the creation and maintenance of the political and militia success. The soft power mostly consisted of attraction tactics and cooperation between the leaders and their supporters. Most Caudillos were influential to the citizens because they possessed charismatic skills in their leadership (Landrie, 2013).

The possession of individual charisma was used to influence and inspire the citizens to use aristocratic skills towards the Americans during the 19th century. Through the implementation of the aristocratic skills, the Caudillos made decisions on the various matters pertaining to the military group within the state. Also, the Caudillos dictated military activities, which significantly contributed to military success. Also, the Caudillos use dictated the political structures and the flow of political activities, which served as a tool towards political success during the ancient period. Because they possessed individual charisma, the Caudillos restricted their followers from participating in vital decision-making to avoid intrusion of political matters (Rees, 2020). This was perceived to have contributed to political success because of their full and constant control of political issues. Also, the Caudillos set future strategies to serve as an inspirational tool for their supporters, which enhanced political Success (Stronen, 2016). The caudillo leaders set political objectives which helped to create and maintain political success in Latin America. The caudillo leaders worked hard to ensure that these political objectives were fully implemented to promote political success.  The Caudillo leaders were issued their instructions to their supporters to ensure that victory was achieved in the military group through strict compliance to the provided instructions. Besides, charismatic skills helped to implement political and military authority within Latin America, which enhanced political and militia success within the state. The invention of suitable motivational tools helped gain political success because the supporters of caudillo leadership were easily motivated, which led to the success of the Caudillo leaders in Latin America (Rivers, 2019).

The Use of Charismatic Skills

The Caudillos used various forms of charismatic skills to promote political and militia success through individual charisma. They mainly included human induction, activity induction, and relational induction.  Through the use of charismatic skills, the Caudillo leaders focused on human induction in the political system, which led to political achievement in Latin America. To promote a thriving culture, the caudillo leaders provided a well-established foundation concerning the political expectations from their followers to ensure that both political and militia success was highly achievable in Latin America (Meslec et al., 2020). The caudillo leaders were perceived as successful leaders by the American citizens, and the citizens’ perception helped promote success in the political world. Since the ancient period, the caudillo leaders were associated with political success, which helped achieve militia success. Also, the caudillo leaders focused on political investment through their engagement in human activities that promote success within the state. Through the relational induction, the caudillo leaders could relate with the citizens through massive influence and incorporation of motivational tools to attract more followers, which helped in gaining political success within the state. The use of proper communication channels helped the citizens were equally treated to avoid any form of bias in the political system. This helped in influencing the supporters and led to both political and military success within the state. To promote military success, the caudillo leaders focused on implementing the essential networks with the state’s citizens, which helped gain political victory (Franco, 2015).

The Implementation of Caudillo Politics

The use of the caudillismo system was reflected by viable leaderships built on the various militia actions that promoted political success. In the 19th century, the caudillos gained and retained power through the essential activities of the montoneras in Latin America. The caudillo leaders focused on the struggle for power through the engagement of social groups to promote political success and obtain success in the armed forces within the state. The caudillo leaders concentrated on the mobilization of the citizens to ensure continuity in the political progression within the state. To enhance constant success, the caudillo leaders used some blacks as slaves to influence the whites towards achieving political success. The citizens within the rural areas were used as motivational tools to promote success within the armed forces, where they were influenced by the caudillo leader. Most citizens within the state believed that the caudillo leaders had a well-known state significance, and this played a crucial role in obtaining political success. Because of their national influence towards the citizens, the Caudillo leaders served as chiefs in various local areas. The early exposure to leadership played a crucial role in obtaining political success. During the 19th century, the caudillo leaders carried out different political and militia functions to enhance the achievement of success within the state. Also, the caudillo leaders underwent training that was essential in improving military skills, which helped gain military success within the state (Von, 2019). The montoneras were used to achieve political success through their organization which was highly influential to the citizens. Besides, the montoneras were used to change the existing political power, which helped gain political power. Also, they served as militia groups by influencing the citizens, which helped gain military Success (Ayrolo, 2012).

The Role of Resources in political and militia success

The famous urban areas sectors helped achieve political success through compliance to the charismatic factors owned by the Caudillo leaders in the American state. The influential caudillo leaders helped to obtain military success within the state. Also, the caudillo leaders gained resources through unfair means, which were used to push towards political victory. Since the Caudillo leaders served as dictators, they acquired private land owned by various citizens within the state, where the ground was later sold to gain resources to promote military Success (Seman,2020). The leaders were accused of looting public resources, which they used to gain political mobilization within the state. Having emerged after the world war, the caudillo leaders gained political power by influencing the citizens who suffered massive losses such as the destruction of property. The possession of adequate resources led to military training schools, which helped to acquire military success within the state. To obtain political success, the Caudillo leaders forcefully received monetary resources from the American citizens who invested in business through dictatorship, which helped gain political success. The manipulation of citizens by the leaders was used to obtain money to promote both political and militia Success (Diamint & Tedesco,2015 ). The leaders’ possession of adequate resources was used to obtain political victory where the followers were influenced by money (Labedev, 2019).

The Theory of Charismatic Leadership by Max Weber

According to Weber, a German sociologist, charismatic leadership is perceived as the ability of the leaders to have sufficient grace and remain passionate towards the followers throughout the entire leadership period. It is believed that most people follow leaders because of the belief that they exist as supernatural beings with extraordinary abilities ( Tillman, 2021). Because of this perception, most supporters and followers are easily influenced by leaders in charismatic leadership. Weber points out that charismatic leaders are self-proclaimed, where they develop individual leadership styles to influence their followers. In most cases, charismatic leaders strive to fulfill their destinies and influence the supporters in fulfilling their destinies. Max Weber believed that charismatic leadership arises in difficult situations within the organization where the organization’s functions are questioned because of inefficiency. Because of the existence of charisma, charismatic leaders develop a conflict with the existing laws within the organization. It is also believed that charismatic leadership may enhance creativity within the organization because of the engagement of the supporters and followers ( Mann,2016). Genuine charisma is well displayed in leaders and not the followers involved. Also, charisma leadership is based on; the social and psychological factors related to charismatic leaders. Most charismatic leaders are perceived as supernatural, where they develop exceptional leadership tactics during the leadership period ( Porath et al.,2015). Charismatic leaders incorporate the use of new styles that provide clear directives and policies to their followers. In charismatic leadership, the leaders establish the objective and mission during the entire leadership period, where the followers are devoted to achieving and fulfilling the set objectives (Epley, 2015).

Further, Weber’s theory on charismatic leadership points out that charismatic leadership is prone to instability because the supporters suffer from emotional anxiety, hence unable to discharge their duties as per their leader’s expectations. Besides, charismatic leaders incorporate the use of violent tactics in case their leadership actions are questioned by their supporters. Most charismatic leaders believe their leadership style is legitimate and hence do not value the opinions and suggestions from their supporters. Most charismatic leaders incorporate the use of a bureaucratic system where the rules and regulations are well established in a hierarchical manner within the organization (Reid, 2017). The power of charisma is mainly based on a particular belief, and hence with time, the charismatic form of leadership becomes routine but is vulnerable to transformation. In charismatic leadership, there are two leadership models mainly; transactional and transformational. In the transactional model, charismatic leaders have the responsibility to influence and motivate their supporters towards the set vision of the organization. Also, this model comprises the leader’s interpretation of the supporters’ roles in achieving the set mission. On the other hand, the transformational model comprises the leaders who promote change among their supporters by improving their standard values. Charismatic leadership involves the leaders’ possession of influential traits that attract their supporters and ensure they remain committed to their leaders.

The Concept of Charismatic Leadership

According to Epley (2015), the leaders influence the followers to gain control of the working environment by establishing individual rules that suit their individual needs while in leadership. The leaders implement strategies that control and dominate the psychology of the supporters to ensure that supporters remain loyal in providing the delegated duties. However, some leaders may possess poor leadership skills that promote the supporters’ oppression which is well reflected in the mass withdrawal of the supporters. In charismatic leadership, some leaders control the supporters’ freedom, making them suffer emotional torture because they develop a sense of inferiority complex.  Such aspects make the supporters yearn for leadership because of the poor and unfair treatment they receive from the existing charismatic leaders. It is believed that charismatic leadership is individually sought through exposure, skill, and knowledge and the leaders’ ability to remain manipulative and influential to the supporters through communicating more compellingly. In charismatic leadership, the leaders might have the ability to persuade or issue threats to the supporters by implementing dictatorship strategies. According to Max Weber, charismatic leadership commonly occurs during the power transitioning between the leaders. For a charismatic style to remain successful, there must be the implementation of unusual elements during the leadership period. It is believed that charismatic leadership is based on the emotional wellbeing of the leaders, and therefore the supporters are vulnerable to emotional abuse from their existing leaders, which is viewed as an abusive leadership style. In some instances, the supporters might have partial control over the current leaders, yet some leaders do not value the suggestions of their supporters. Despite the fact that charismatic leaders have complete control over their supporters, they should remain ethical to avoid engaging in manipulative activities that interfere with the mental state of their supporters. The rules and regulations concerning charismatic leadership should be clearly outlined to the supporters for easy compliance without excessive force or manipulative tactics that might be a danger to the followers.

Conclusion

It is evident that the use of charismatic leadership style played a crucial role in achieving political success among the caudillo leaders in Latin America. The ability of the Caudillo leaders to influence and motivate their followers significantly enhanced military success within the state.  The success of charismatic leadership depends entirely on the emotional wellbeing of the leader and the willingness to serve the people involved. The leaders should avoid the use of manipulative language by implementing proper communication skills while communicating to their supporters. This helps in reducing emotional stress associated with the supporters’ vulnerability to manipulative language. While serving their supporters, leaders should promote servant leadership and by respecting their followers regardless of their leadership positions. While implementing charismatic leadership, the leaders should promote human rights by eliminating any form of abuse directed to their supporters during the entire leadership period. The use of coercive strategies by leaders should be discouraged and instead focus on the ethical attributes of the leaders. For successful leadership, the leaders should embrace proper decision-making through the inclusion of their supporters in the decision-making process. However, the leaders should have influential abilities to win the supporters without being abusive and posing a danger to the followers.

References

Andrews-Lee, C. (2020). The Politics of Succession in Charismatic Movements: Routinization versus Revival in Argentina, Venezuela, and Peru. Comparative Politics52(2), 289-316.

Ayrolo, V., & Míguez, E. (2012). Reconstruction of the Socio-Political Order after Independence in Latin America. A Reconsideration of Caudillo Politics in the River Plate. Jahrbuch für Geschichte Lateinamerikas49(1), 107-132.

Benazir, S. (2019). The use of coercive power. Journal of Analytical Psychology54(1), 25-41. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-5922.2008.01755.x

Benjamin, J. R. (2021). 5. Embracing Dictatorship: The United States and Batista. In The United States and the Origins of the Cuban Revolution (pp. 119-140). Princeton University Press. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/9780691214962-008/html

Cannataro, I. M. (2013). The edge of politics: the Caudillos in Latin America and the question of sovereignty. Revista europea de historia de las ideas políticas y de las instituciones públicas6, 141-155.

Diamint, R., and Tedesco, L. (2015). Latin America’s Leaders. Zed Books Ltd… https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=4W5jDgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT9&dq=role+of+personal+charisma+in+++political+careers+of+caudillos&ots=Xx8Yk1sPIf&sig=RU_D7IFTDSrgSvLeYpSb8sx4XmY

Epley, J. L. (2015). Weber’s theory of charismatic leadership: The case of Muslim leaders in contemporary Indonesian politics. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science5(7), 7-17.

Franco, A. (2015). Caudillismo as a Business Leadership Model: A Critical Assessment. All Correspondence should be addressed to, 1.

Gómez-García, S., Martin-Quevedo, J., & Quevedo-Redondo, R. (2021). The Sound Portrait of a Dictator: A Study of Francós image in Radio Nacional de España. Media History, 1-14. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13688804.2021.1914013

Johnson, J. J. (2015). The Latin-American military as a politically competing group in a transitional society. In Role of the Military in Underdeveloped Countries (pp. 91-130). Princeton University Press. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/9781400878864-005/html

Kuzma Zabaleta, C. V. (2021). The Socio-Cultural Dimension of Territory as the Foundation for Participatory Decentralization in Uruguay and Chile (Doctoral dissertation, Universities d’Ottawa/the University of Ottawa). https://ruor.uottawa.ca/handle/10393/42015

Landrie, T. A. (2013). Toward a More Holistic Understanding of Caudillo Leadership (Doctoral dissertation, Marietta College).

Lebedev, P. (2019). Defining financial leadership: reflections on current conversations about a changing role of management accounting. In 6th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Art Sgem 2019 (pp. 227-238).

Mann, C. G. (2015). Charismatic leadership and democracy in the Caribbean Basin: the constitutional legacies of Arnulfo Arias and Luis Muñoz Marín. Leadership and the Humanities3(2), 92-116. https://www.elgaronline.com/downloadpdf/journals/lath/3-2/lath.2015.02.02.pdf

Meslec, N., Curseu, P. L., Fodor, O. C., & Kenda, R. (2020). Effects of charismatic leadership and rewards on individual performance. The Leadership Quarterly31(6), 101423. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1048984320300503

Moffitt, B. (2020). 4. The Performer: Populism and the Leader. In The Global Rise of Populism (pp. 51-69). Stanford University Press. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/9780804799331-006/html

Nikoloski, K. (2015). Charismatic leadership and power: Using the power of charisma for better leadership in the enterprises. Journal of Process Management. New Technologies3(2), 18-26.

Porath, W., Suzuki, J. J., Ramdohr, T. M., & Portales, J. C. (2015). Newspaper coverage of three presidential campaigns in chile: personalization and political strategies. Bulletin of Latin American Research34(4), 451-466. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/blar.12366

Rees, T. (2020). Franco: Anatomy of a Dictator, by Enrique Moradiellos. https://academic.oup.com/ehr/article-abstract/135/574/732/5875803

Reid, M. (2017). Chapter Three. The Seed of Democracy in the Land of the Caudillo. In Forgotten Continent (pp. 46-80). Yale University Press. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.12987/9780300231700-006/html

Rivers, M. N. (2019). A Review of Autocratic, Paternalistic, and Charismatic Leadership in Three Collectivist Cultures.

Semán, E. (2020). Guinartism: on Don Quixote, caudillos, and political imagination in Latin America. In Leadership, Populism, and Resistance. Edward Elgar Publishing. https://www.elgaronline.com/downloadpdf/edcoll/9781788979252/9781788979252.00011.pdf

Strønen, I. Å. (2016). “A Civil-Military Alliance”: The Venezuelan Armed Forces before and during the Chávez era. CMI Working Paper. https://www.cmi.no/publications/5808-a-civil-military-alliance

Tillman, E. (2021). The Dominican Republic: From Military Rule to Democracy. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. https://oxfordre.com/politics/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.001.0001/acrefore-9780190228637-e-1811

Von Vacano, D. (2019). American caudillo: Princely performative populism and democracy in the Americas. Philosophy & Social Criticism45(4), 413-428. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0191453719826349

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