Theories in Public Health, Essay Example

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Essay

Identification of two key theories in public health

In the field of public health, there are two main theories that one may identify. According to Reynolds (2010), “As a set of laws, theories are well-supported empirical generalizations of natural laws” (p.3). The theories will give a better understanding of public health.  The theories include the Community health education theory and Advocacy theory. The community theory talks of how the health of a community can gain improvement by education. The community can get materials they need to learn on diseases that affect them like malaria, diabetes. These may be from brochures, booklets, articles and newspapers. The symptoms, treatment and prevention of the diseases are found in these materials.

The advocacy theory talks of community, health care providers and the hospitals availing themselves to help eradicate diseases from the community.  They provide the knowledge they have, their time and resources to do this. They may organize tents for checkups and marathons to help raise funds to go to hospital for those who have none. The theoretical framework for the theories is in terms of some key areas. The individuals engaging in health care need expertise to accomplish the set goals. For example, there is a disease outbreak the health provider should have the tools to recognize the disease in its early phases.

There is also need to forecast in the heath care service system. This is useful in determining, for example, the delivery of medication and treatment in the future. That is if the medical system is currently moving in the right direction that will be fruitful in future. However, this may not be the case and thus there is a need for forecasting to see the future. The key areas of the theories include organization of community health campaigns. This is mobilizing the community to avail themselves and turn up for campaigns. This is where the community representatives go around the community and educate other people in the country on healthcare.

The community members take the initiative and decide to act. There is also the area of provision for social and behavioral changes. The community can get these psychological services from health care. There are of health promotions and education. This is using the media both visual and in writing. This helps the theorists show that, through the media, more people get to know of the various health care providers who provide their services in a given area.

The other key area is the character of advocacy in the community and heath care. The political arena provides the platform to enhance this. The population analysis is also a key area because the data obtained is used to determine the areas that a disease may be prevalent.

Identification of the theorists and theories sources

According to Reynolds (2010), “Students can learn the various methods of building theory, and practice writing them using a standard form” (p.10). This is where the theories originate. These are the areas that the theories come up from and the persons who develop them. There is the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Health Education Advocacy (HEA) group, which are the sources. The two bodies aim to create awareness on diseases and ways of prevention. There is the United States Centre for Disease Control and Prevention that deals with chronic diseases. It focuses mainly on the chronic diseases, as they are rampant in the community, costly and preventable. This program also gains approval from the President’s budget that allows the health programs to gain improvement.  The theorists include Matt Stone and Robert Wood that come up with these two theories.

Tenets of the theories

The heath care budget is experiencing changes with competitive and cooperative agreements. This will ensure that the focus is on the disease in the programs. There will be no time wastage in identifying other diseases, as the main disease symptoms are evident. The budget will allow the existence of competition to give the community better treatment. This is because they will want to be at their best so that the other health care providers do not outdo them.

The Department of Public Health provides a means to foster hope in the community by enhancing awareness. This is true because if the community has the knowledge to deal with a given disease they will be able to accord treatment. If they were unable to do so, they would know the method or process they need to undergo to get assistance. Thus, the community will not be hopeless and despair because they have the education they need. The department also acts as the leader; this is because they are the supreme figure.

According to Mary (2006), “public health care in Canada works to maintain and improve the health status” (p.39). This is just an example as Canada stand for the other countries.  The Public Health is the instrument that the government uses to create awareness in the community. The chronic diseases also take the larger part of the awareness program.

There is the cooperation with the business citizens who will be able to give the appropriate environment to reduce the diseases. There is a partnership with the provision of resources and technical help. The resources will help to finance the awareness process as well as provide health care. Technical help will be in terms of the work force and technology that is the number of people that the program needs. The type of technology they will use, for example, projectors.

The prevention funds also on the budget increment to ensure that all the diseases get all attention. Thus, the health parties need to be in the awareness programs. This is because they will be able to incorporate the key parts of the theories in the processes. That is change theories, organizing public campaigns, health promotions, advocacy and the diverse population.

Analysis and assessment of the key relationship between the two theories

The two theories have two key similarities. According to Reynolds (2010), “Theory can seem so conceptual and esoterical that students may doubt its usefulness in and or out of the classroom…” (p.8). This is true as one gets to learn a theory they will understand it better and make out the similarities and differences. That is prevention is always the way to curb the spread of any disease.

The two theorists agree that it is better to enlighten the community on ways to compact diseases this will ensure that the cost margins are lower. The community will be using fewer funds in the health care facilities and more on their businesses. This will enhance the country’s productivity and will place it on the map due to its citizens. The budget constrains will also improve as the funds that would be put aside for any epidemic will be absent as the diseases reduce.

Prevention is the answer with the formulation of preventable illness programs that will help in this endeavor. The health care workforce will be more productive in their jobs. This is because they will be giving their level best in dealing with patients. This is as the number of sick patients reduces as the awareness programs continue to flourish. Thus, less numbers will be getting sick and hence visiting hospitals. The competitive spirit will also be present in the country that practices prevention. This is because other counties will want to illuminate them. This is because the country can control the diseases in its country and prevent the spread of deadly ones.

The other aspect is that the lives of the younger generations are unhealthy. It is the work of the health care scheme to get a hold of this and find ways for its eradication. The unhealthy lifestyles are because of the younger generation not knowing any better.             There is also the fact that nowadays most foods are high in preservatives, sugar and saturated fats. The buildup of all these products will lead to development of diseases like diabetes, obesity and heart attack among others. The number of the young deaths due to this is on the rise, and the public health system is trying to create awareness on the effects of unhealthy lifestyles.

Importance of the theories to public health and there relation to the research on diabetes

The importance of these theories to public health is that they deal with a large population in the programs and awareness process. According to Mary (2006), “People who work in diverse field of public health actively contribute to building and sustaining healthy communities” (p.4). Public health deals also with getting the public to their best health. It involves a large group of people in public the numbers can only gain estimation.      The theories also show an interest in the health care as part of the community and not other areas that are not under the public health. According to Mary (2006), “…public health combines science, skills and beliefs directed to the maintenance and improvement of health of all people trough collective action” (p.46). Thus, they have this similar characteristic. There is also the aspect of the discipline begin a part of change which the theories clearly state. That is that the community should be part of the awareness process and not leave the job to health providers only. This is because the community representatives will help to easily mobilize the community as compared to when the health providers would mobilize them alone.

The relation of the research area to the theories is that the theories put emphasis on chronic diseases. Diabetes is a chronic disease, which is present in the community. There are measures, however, being put in place, to eradicate it from the community. There is also the part that the theories speak of the unhealthy lifestyles present nowadays. This also is part of the diabetes research finding things that cause the disease. Thus, the theories show their importance to the discipline as well as relation to the research topic of diabetes.

References

Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Mary, S. (2006). Introduction to public health. Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett. Novick, L. (2008). Public health administration: principles for population-based management. Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publication.

Reynolds, P. D. (2010). A primer in theory construction (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

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