Back to School Offer

Get 20% of Your First Order amount back in Reward Credits!

Get 20% of Your First Orderback in Rewards

All papers examples
Get a Free E-Book! ($50 Value)
HIRE A WRITER!
Paper Types
Disciplines
Get a Free E-Book! ($50 Value)

What Was the Ideological Basis of the New Imperialism and How Did This Contribute to the Establishment of the Congo as King Leopold’s Personal Colony, Essay Example

Pages: 4

Words: 1182

Essay

Abstract

This chapter considers the ideological basis of new imperialism and its effect as a contributing factor in establishment of the Congo as King Leopold’s personal colony. It would clearly specify the new imperialistic ideas, its dissension and motivation in the being the strong undercurrent to acts of barbarism and exploitation. It would also specify the political and economic environment during the period and the role of Belgian King Leopold II, who was the most important person in being instrumental in the territorial partition of Africa.

The ideologies propagated by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, essentially meant the division of the society in two halves- “have’ and “have not’s”. One section of the society deemed as the bourgeoisie, had affluence and money, as opposed to the other which was poor and feeble. Such a dissection led to wide parity, and finally a stage of erroneous exploitation of one by the other.  The affluent class or the capitalists owned the raw materials, resources, money and power that was maneuvered for more luxury and comfort, while the poor sections were victimized as workers, with bare minimum wages and starvation. This situation is better described as human imperialism. Strong undercurrents for power, growth, business and acquisition led to imperialism among countries.

Karl Marx was not vocal about imperialism, though there are references of colonisation with emphasis on capitalism and their traits of capturing the means of production. Lenin defined the Marxist form of imperialism as, “the highest stage of capitalism”, especially in the form where capital and finance monopoly becomes predominant, inducing one superior nation to approach another nation, to control its markets and resources. According to Marxists, imperialism essentially did not mean the capture of one country by the other, or the acquisition of territories by powerful countries. Marx implied that it was more than it- it was the economic exploitation of the poorer countries. A short example will clear the distinction. The Mughals captured the Indian territories, but that was not imperialism. It the intention was to create a homeland and make the original inhabitants a part and parcel of the rule. French came to India – that was imperialism, because they wanted to create a market and potential trade stations in India. They came as friendly traders, established their mark and colonies, but never killed or committed atrocities with people, nor was there any physical dominance in the government of the people. Britain colonised India and that was new imperialism, as the resources and assets of the country were used and exploited, torn and ravaged, and the riches were transported to their own country. The people were mistreated and exploited. They came as traders and became the leaders.

New imperialism was a few steps ahead. It began during 1870, after the colonisation of Asia and Africa, where military force was executed to take control over the local people. This process involved creation of massive markets for the European goods,  getting a constant supply of cheap yet skilled labour and colonisation of the culture of the inhabitants. Their purpose was to “only take” without return.

The major new imperialistic activities in Africa were in resonance to the activities of Dr David Livingston (He was the first man of white origin to do social work in South and Central Africa) and H.M.Stanley (he with King Leopold formed the Congo region). It also evolved as a strategy for the spread of Christianity in these poor countries, and an onus to give these underprivileged societies, Western superior ideologies.

King Leopold I, was born in Brussels and ascended the throne in 1865. He was the first cousin to Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. King Leopold was the founder the only owner of the Congo Free State; it was a private initiative by the King. The area is now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

The soliloquy of King Leopold defines the whole situation, “In these twenty years I have spent millions to keep the press of the two hemispheres quiet, and still these leaks keep on occurring. I have spent other millions on religion and art, and what do I get for it? Nothing. Not a compliment. These generosities are studiedly ignored, in print. In print I get nothing but slanders…and implored them to place the vast and rich populous Congo Free state in trust in my hands as their agent, so that I might root out slavery and stop the slave raids, and lift up those twenty-five millions of gentle and harmless blacks out of darkness into light.. lift them up and make them comprehend that they were no longer outcasts and forsaken, but our very brothers in Christ.. forbidding whisky traffic and gun traffic; providing courts of justice; making commerce free and fetterless to the merchants and traders of all nations, and welcoming and safe-guarding all missionaries of all creeds and denominations.. these meddlesome American missionaries! These frank British consuls! blabbingblabbing Belgian-born traitor officials! — those tiresome parrots ..”The words of a sentimental and bruised King Leopold, when the media was outrage by the atrocities he committed in the name of business and development. King Leopold was the friend of Stanley, the famous explorer, who helped him in the proliferation of the mission. According to him, overseas colonies were the reason of prosperity of a nation, and wanted to aquire territories for his homeland. Neither Belgian government nor its people were interested in such activities, but provided him the necessary money to start his venture.  In 1876 he floated his private holding company, as a philanthropic association and named it as International African Society. He cleared his intentions for the establishment of a colony, which resulted in the united European consolidation. In his words, “how America and thirteen great European states wept in sympathy with me, and were persuaded; how their representatives met in convention in Berlin and made me Head Foreman and Superintendent of the Congo State, and drafted out my powers and limitations, carefully guarding the persons and liberties and properties of the natives against hurt and harm.” As a consequence, Leopold was the owner of Congo Free State, an area 76 times larger than Belgium, which he was authorised to rule with his private army ‘Force Publique’.

As apprehended, the natives were forced to work with low wages in rubber industry and were subjected to erroneous mutilation and slavery. There was anarchy, torment and brutal massacre. John Harris, a missionary, wrote a letter to the chief agent of the king saying, “I have just returned from a journey inland to the village of Insongo Mboyo. The abject misery and utter abandon is positively indescribable. I was so moved, Your Excellency, by the people’s stories that I took the liberty of promising them that in future you will only kill them for crimes they commit.” Thus the spirit of new imperialism led to the venture of King Leopold and the carnage of 8 million people.

Works Cited

Neal Ascherson. (1963) The King Incorporated, Allen & Unwin, Last Retrieved on October 26, 2009

Adam Hochschild(1998).King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa, Last Retrieved on October 26, 2009 http://chss.montclair.edu/english/furr/i2l/kls.html

Time is precious

Time is precious

don’t waste it!

Get instant essay
writing help!
Get instant essay writing help!
Plagiarism-free guarantee

Plagiarism-free
guarantee

Privacy guarantee

Privacy
guarantee

Secure checkout

Secure
checkout

Money back guarantee

Money back
guarantee

Related Essay Samples & Examples

Email and Social Media for Business Communication, Essay Example

To tech support about an employee’s computer that has been infected by a virus. While for this purpose, it might be okay to send an [...]

Pages: 2

Words: 453

Essay

Rhetorical Fallacies, Essay Example

Fallacies pervade the mass media and in the dissemination of news in order to construct discourses in ways that fit narratives according to political ideology [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 382

Essay

Food as Medicine, Essay Example

 When a virus invades the body the immune system plays a defense role. The way in which the body’s immune system responds is not exclusive [...]

Pages: 2

Words: 628

Essay

NFL’s Change of Market to Los Angeles, Essay Example

 National Foot Ball League known to have its base operations in New England is now looking to transfer in Los Angeles in the coming season. [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 300

Essay

How Do You Evaluate an Argument? Essay Example

To evaluate an argument, it is first necessary to determine the author’s claim. It is then important to determine both the supporting evidence and counterevidence [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 275

Essay

I Am Nobody, Who Are You? Essay Example

Many individuals author poems because they wish to convey their inner thoughts and feelings to an audience that may feel the same way about themselves. [...]

Pages: 2

Words: 585

Essay

Email and Social Media for Business Communication, Essay Example

To tech support about an employee’s computer that has been infected by a virus. While for this purpose, it might be okay to send an [...]

Pages: 2

Words: 453

Essay

Rhetorical Fallacies, Essay Example

Fallacies pervade the mass media and in the dissemination of news in order to construct discourses in ways that fit narratives according to political ideology [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 382

Essay

Food as Medicine, Essay Example

 When a virus invades the body the immune system plays a defense role. The way in which the body’s immune system responds is not exclusive [...]

Pages: 2

Words: 628

Essay

NFL’s Change of Market to Los Angeles, Essay Example

 National Foot Ball League known to have its base operations in New England is now looking to transfer in Los Angeles in the coming season. [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 300

Essay

How Do You Evaluate an Argument? Essay Example

To evaluate an argument, it is first necessary to determine the author’s claim. It is then important to determine both the supporting evidence and counterevidence [...]

Pages: 1

Words: 275

Essay

I Am Nobody, Who Are You? Essay Example

Many individuals author poems because they wish to convey their inner thoughts and feelings to an audience that may feel the same way about themselves. [...]

Pages: 2

Words: 585

Essay

Get a Free E-Book ($50 in value)

Get a Free E-Book

How To Write The Best Essay Ever!

How To Write The Best Essay Ever!