1. An article by Williams et.al (2009) addresses the development of community health assessment techniques that are effective in evaluating data in an effort to encourage participation in the assessment process. This article is relevant because it emphasizes community-based approaches to assessments to improve health outcomes for local residents (Williams et.al, 2009).
2. An article by Walker et.al (2011) considers the important areas of needs assessment at the community level to expand partnerships and to improve outcomes for local residents. This initiative explores how these partnerships might be effective in promoting greater health through education to improve wellbeing (Walker et.al, 2011).
3. The article by Fennell et.al (2009) considers the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the general patient population. Across many studies, it was determined that many people who use these therapies as part of their routines do not report this use to their primary physicians, with the reasons behind this lack of disclosure unclear, but perhaps as a result of perceived lack of approval of these choices (Fennell et.al, 2009). Regardless, there is an increased level of consideration of CAM by many people, particularly if they do not have health insurance or medical procedures are cost prohibitive (Fennell et.al, 2009).
4.An article by Taylor (2012) addresses the importance of assessment in an older population group in order to identify different elements of the population that may benefit from holistic practices involving psychosocial needs. This article states that “There are challenges facing coordinated assessment processes in health and social care of older people because of the wide variety of care pathways in primary, acute, ‘intermediate’ and community care settings” (Taylor, 2012).
5.An article by Harris-Roxas and Harris (2011) addresses the importance of different perspectives in the creation of health impact assessments from different sources to determine the efficacy and strength of these assessments in promoting and addressing the healthcare needs of specific population groups.
6.An article by Ndao-Brumblay and Green (2010) addresses the importance of CAM in patients experiencing chronic pain over a period of time and how this treatment approach impacts their quality of life in different ways. The authors note that there are specific concerns of these patients that are typically considered when addressing the use of CAM therapies, including the degree to which they will not only impact physical pain, but also psychological wellbeing (Ndao-Brumblay and Green, 2010).
7.An article by Hassan et.al (2010) addresses the importance of CAM for patients facing chronic illness and determined that many patients use CAM to treat different forms of chronic illness, including type 2 diabetes. There was also a range of CAM therapies in use, such as herbal medicines and vitamins (Hassan et.al, 2010). In addition, it was observed that some patients experienced improvements as a result of the use of CAM on a regular basis (Hassan et.al, 2010).
8.An article by Koenig et.al (2012) addresses the significance of different principles associated with CAM as they are related to older patients. For example, the primary conclusion of the article is as follows: “Regardless of a physician’s stance or knowledge about CAM, she or he can help patients negotiate CAM treatment decisions” (Hassan et.al, 2010). In this context, it is observed that the use of CAM across different population groups is common, but for many older patients, there is often less of an understanding of these treatments and how they might impact outcomes for patients; therefore, physicians must play an important role in shaping outcomes and in determining how to best move forward in treating patients using alternative and complementary therapies under specific conditions (Hassan et.al, 2010).
9.A book written Kayne and Whitehouse (2009) addresses the importance of CAM in the development of disease management and prevention in different patient populations. This book expresses the increasing relevance of this type of therapeutic intervention and its widespread impact on patient care and treatment across different population groups throughout the world (Kayne and Whitehouse, 2009).
10. An article by Collins and Koplan (2009) considers the impact of health impact assessments in relation to environmental conditions as a means of promoting healthcare delivery and a greater impact of these services on residents across different communities to ensure that healthcare outcomes are met in an effective manner.
11. An article by Laverack (2006) considers the ability of community empowerment to play an important role in shaping the lives of residents to achieve greater health outcomes by promoting resource utilization, engaging in collaborations, and in supporting the demands of healthcare practice to facilitate greater outcomes for residents. This article also demonstrates that empowering residents may make a significant difference in their ability to achieve greater outcomes and to facilitate health improvements by using community-based resources in an effective manner (Laverack, 2006).
12. An article by Dhanani et.al (2011) considers the importance of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of pain, such as acupuncture in the treatment of back pain, headache knee pain, fibromyalgia, and other forms of pain that are common in many patients. In addition, the use of biofeedback has become increasingly common as a source of effective outcomes for fibromyalgia, which has become increasingly prevalent in many adult population groups (Dhanani et.al, 2011).
13. An article by Cheadle et.al (2010) addresses the significance of the Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative as a means of considering the impact of specific indicators on the population, such as nutrition, weight, and physical activity. This initiative supports the creation of new objectives and interventions to ensure that patient needs are met within communities through the improvement of existing resources and the availability of new resources for use in these areas so that local residents have the tools that are necessary to expand their health promotion activities in different ways, including the reduction of weight as necessary and the improvement of nutrition (Cheadle et.al, 2010).
14. An article by Baarts and Pedersen (2009) evaluates the importance of specific CAM therapies and their overall impact on health and wellbeing, as well as the integration of mind and body for some patients, who express the following: “in their continuous exploration of their bodies, health and wellbeing become important values that the clients seek to achieve through an activity such as CAM that is supposed to have a restorative effect on their minds and bodies” (Baarts and Pedersen, 2009). These efforts indicate the presence of a mind-body connection or association that is not always identified as a primary benefit for traditional pharmacological therapies (Baarts and Pedersen, 2009).
15. An article by Ernst (2012) addresses the importance of CAM therapies and their impact on disease prevention efforts in adults. These efforts demonstrate the important impact of patient care and the relevance of CAM treatments in the prevention of chronic illness and other types of diseases (Ernst, 2012). These efforts also demonstrate the importance of specific types of holistic medicine in the prevention of illness across different population groups that face these risks (Ernst, 2012).
16. An article by Coeling and Cukr (2000) address collaboration in nursing practice and how it is impacted by weak communication skills, yet is essential to the discovery of new ideas and teaching styles for nurses.
17. An article by Elder and Paul addresses the importance of critical thinking and its role in improving the workplace environment by using specific skills to improve thinking and analysis in a variety of activities.
18. An article by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management addresses the importance of team-based environments and how they contribute to effective outcomes and successful results in a variety of team settings.
19. An article by Miller (2005) considers the relevance of communication in a hierarchical framework in order to establish a greater understanding of team environments in healthcare practice that are based upon models utilized in other industries, particularly in perinatal nursing.
20. An article by Kvarnstrom (2008) addresses the importance of collaboration in the interprofessional team environment and how this supports or negates progress in nursing practice in different ways, including limitations placed upon patient care and wellbeing.
21. An article by Baird et.al (2012) considers the role of structure and its impact on how nurses communicate with each other and with their patients in an effort to produce successful results in clinical and workplace settings.
22. A website sponsored by the Baltimore City Health Department (2009) addresses the value and contributions of local experts in promoting an agenda that supports the ability to reduce disparities in regards to cardiovascular disease in the city of Baltimore. These disparities play an important role in promoting negative outcomes for local residents and therefore, must be addressed by local experts to reduce cardiovascular-related risks (Baltimore City Health Department, 2009).
23. Another report created by the Baltimore City Health Department (2010) summarizes health disparities for the local community in order to capture the important aspects of improved care and treatment that are required for local residents to reduce health disparities and improve wellbeing.
24. A report provided by The Baltimore Sun (2010) represents a means of exploring the current conditions of Baltimore and its different neighborhoods in an effort to determine how to best achieve the desired health objectives in a manner that is consistent with the needs of local residents, based upon their community affiliations.
25. An article by Beckett and Kipnis (2009) considers the ability of different strategies, such as SBAR, in order to achieve improved communication amongst nurses so that the quality of patient care is not compromised.
26. An article by Boscart (2009) identifies the opportunity to improve communication through an organized intervention that would likely expand nursing roles and responsibilities through the delineation of these requirements through expanded communication efforts to accomplish specific objectives.
27. A report established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention addresses the importance of public health resources in the development of a prevention plan to reduce heart disease and stroke in the community-based setting by using knowledge and expertise widely to improve outcomes.
28. Cohn and Marton (2012) address the significant disparities that exist between wealthier neighborhoods and those that are poor and struggling to survive specific health concerns and challenges. The differences are striking and require significant attention and understanding in order to reduce these disparities (Cohn and Marton, 2012).
29. An article by Fatahi et.al (2010) considers the impact of language disparities in communication between nurses and those patients who are unable to speak the native language, as these challenges play a role in shaping healthcare outcomes over the long term.
30. Fleischer et.al (2009) considers the manner in which nurses and their patients communicate and interact on a regular basis in an effort to determine whether additional improvements are required to expand communication in this manner.
31. Hemsley et.al (2012) consider the importance of communicating with patients who possess challenging language barriers and other needs that are difficult to identify. It is believed that the time required to communicate ideas and concerns may hinder progress and recovery, and therefore, must be minimized as best as possible (Hemsley et.al, 2012).
32. The Johns Hopkins Urban Health Institute considers the role of geography in shaping the lives of individuals and families within neighborhoods in order to determine if there are opportunities in place to overcome unique disparities within these areas through organized interventions and the availability of healthcare resources.
33. The Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (2009) compiled a report summarizing the role of heart disease and related risks on the Maryland state population, thereby demonstrating that this is a significant concern that must be continuously addressed within local communities to improve health and wellbeing.
34. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute conducted a discussion with Baltimore residents to determine the level of need associated with this community in regards to health concerns and disparities to improve outcomes within this group.
35. Redsell et.al (2010) considered the importance of specific communication-based approaches to expand outreach for children requiring immunizations in order to expand this practice and improve health outcomes for this population group.
36. Shaya et.al (2006) evaluated the importance of community-based intervention methods in an effort to identify methods of expanding knowledge and reducing health disparities within community settings for the benefit of local residents.
37. Wittenberg-Lyles et.al (2013) consider the significance of specific barriers associated with care and treatment for oncology patients in nursing settings in order to improve the quality of care that is provided within this patient population.
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Fennell, D., Liberato, ASQ, and Zsembik, B. (2009). Definitions and patterns of CAM use by the lay public. Complementary therapies in medicine, 17(2), 71-77.
Fleischer, S., Berg, A., Zimmerman, M., Wuste, K., and Behrens, J. (2009). Nurse-patient interaction and communication: a systematic literature review. Journal of Public Health, 17(5), 339-353.
Harris-Roxas, B., and Harris, E. (2011). Differing forms, differing purposes: a typology of health impact assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 31(4), 396-403.
Hassan, S.S., Ahmed, S.I., Bukhari, N.I., and Loon, W.C. (2009). Use of complementary and alternative medicine among patients with chronic diseases at outpatient clinics. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 15(3), 152-157.
Hemsley, B., Balandin, S., and Worrall, L. (2012). Nursing the patient with complex communication needs: time as a barrier and a facilitator to successful communication in hospital. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(1), 116-126.
Johns Hopkins Urban Health Institute. Health disparities in Baltimore City: is geography destiny? Retrieved from http://urbanhealth.jhu.edu/media/reports/healthdis_baltimore.pdf
Kayne, S.B., and Whitehouse, P.J. (2009). Complementary and alternative medicine. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(12), 1283-1384.
Koenig, C.J., Ho, E.Y., Yadegar, V., and Tarn, D.M. (2012). Negotiating complementary and alternative medicine use in primary care visits with older patients. Patient Education and Counseling, 89(3), 368-373.
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Maryland Department of Health & Mental Hygiene (2009). The Maryland burden of heart disease and stroke. Retrieved from http://phpa.dhmh.maryland.gov/cdp/pdf/Report-Heart-Stroke.pdf
Miller, L.A. (2005). Patient safety and teamwork in perinatal care. Journal of Perinatal Neonatal Nursing, 19(1), 46-51.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Cardiovascular health small group discussion in Baltimore City public housing: consumer assessment for community-based outreach and education. Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/heart/other/smallgroup.pdf
Ndao-Brumblay, S.K., and Green, C.R. (2010). Predictors of complementary and alternative medicine use in chronic pain patients. Pain Medicine, 11(1), 16-24.
Redsell, S.A., Bedford, H., Siriwardena, A.N., Collier, J., and Atkinson, P. (2010). Exploring communication strategies to use with parents on childhood immunization. Nursing Times, 106(19), 19-22.
Shaya, F.T., Gu, A., and Saunders, E. (2006). Addressing cardiovascular disparities Through community interventions. Ethnicity & Disease, 16, 138-144.
Taylor, B.J. (2012). Developing an integrated assessment tool for the health and social care of older people. British Journal of Social Work, 42(7), 1293-1314. U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Building a collaborative team environment, pp. 1-2.
Walker, A. Bezyak, J., Gilbert, E., and Trice, A. (2011). A needs assessment to develop community partnerships. American Journal of Health Education, 42(5), 270-275.
Williams, K.J., Bray, P.G., Shapiro-Mendoza, C.K., Reisz, H., and Peranteau, J. (2009). Modeling the principles of community-based participatory research in a community health assessment conducted by a health foundation. Health Promotion Practice, 10(1), 67-75.
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