Back to School Offer

Get 20% of Your First Order amount back in Reward Credits!

Get 20% of Your First Orderback in Rewards

All papers examples
Get a Free E-Book! ($50 Value)
HIRE A WRITER!
Paper Types
Disciplines
Get a Free E-Book! ($50 Value)

Applied Educational Psychology, Research Paper Example

Pages: 8

Words: 2324

Research Paper

Summary

Autism spectrum disorders are often associated with unusual fears and exaggerated signs of anxiety. There is a lot of fear whereby the victim often anticipates threats in the environment and regularly develops tensed muscles, increased rate of heartbeats, and flight reactions. The inability to cope with fear results in anxiety disorders. Anxiety is more sophisticated than fear and may result in fatal signs of depression that are 49% common in autistic children than in the general population. Social anxiety and autism are often related (Miers, Blote & Westenberg, 2011). For instance, autism signs co-occurred in 45 adults and children who had been diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Cognition is a major internal process based on research focusing on clarifying anxiety disorders’ maintenance, aetiology, and treatment. Children’s beliefs regarding the form of fear of objects, their probability of handling them, their perceived mandate, and the predicted outcomes highlight the maintenance and development of anxiety symptoms and fears. Such complications are acknowledged as interpretation biases, cognitive errors, or cognitive appraisals anxiety (Sharma, Woolfson & Hunter, 2014). Particular, distinct appraisal dimensions trigger emotional reactions significantly. Emotion-oriented coping probability triggers the emotional reaction of fear. Children encountering anxiety disorders seem to have appraisal biases that may be grouped into overestimating the extent of threatening and undermining one’s potential to handle it. During an overestimation of a threat, one may believe that negative results will repeat themselves in every future scenario, and the victim holds themselves accountable for their failures. Victims of anxiety disorders identify a relationship between anxiety complexities and various cognitions such as high self-responsibility, negligible future anticipation, and high uncertainty regarding means of handling negative implications of a social scenario.

Distinct cognitions can underpin various forms of anxiety disorder. For instance, the victims often hold themselves accountable for all adverse outcomes in a generalized model. Adolescents with social anxiety disorders have reliable associations between cognitions affiliated to probability and the cost of awful non-social and social occurrences.  People with particular phobias and the victims of generalized anxiety disorders highlight great extents of future expectancies, overestimating the happening of negative implications in non-fearful and fearful scenarios (Nezlek, Vansteelandt, Mechelen, et al., 2008). As a result, cognitive etiology differs in various anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, there are similarities between people with negative cognitions and anxiety symptoms in that they often claim they will never overcome their difficulties. As a result, children’s beliefs regarding the form of fear objects, the notion of their potential to handle them, and the projected results are affiliated with anxiety symptoms.

Critical Review

Theory

The theory critically evaluates the implications of an autistic child and compares it with other anxiety disorders while comparing the individual’s perceptions regarding life. For instance, it compares their negative thoughts regarding future outcomes and states that they have some commonalities. It states that despite their efforts, they tend to perceive themselves negatively to the extent they declare themselves failures (Alfano, Beidel & Turner, 2008). The outcomes result in speculations that children with HFASD can relay particular cognitive mistakes due to their encounters of high extents of anxiety. The theory addresses the maladaptive cognitions associated with relevance responsibility and belief in handling negative scenarios. It applies some interventions based on various principles that victoriously minimize anxiety levels in autistic children (Creswell, Schneiring, & Rapee, 2005). The studies have majorly focused on ensuring change without exploring the more significant conceptual matters concerning particular conceptual issues. The theory indicates that interpretation biases are present in ambiguous scenes, and they result in some social and physical threats to entities of children with anxiety disorders (Lang, Regester, Lauderdale, et al., 2010). It compares their responses to non-anxious and control groups. It indicates that non-anxious and anxious clinical entities interpret ambiguous occurrences as more threatening than control groups. The theory states that in the absence of relevant and elaborate information, children depend on personality dispositions and past encounters to make judgments and infer meanings (Diehl, Bennetto & Young, 2006). When children judge based on the above criteria, they incorporate demeaning personal appraisals as they are highly likely to arise from people who encounter high extents of anxiety. As a result, the theory confirms that situational ambiguity impacts social cognitive interpretation and thus minimizes clarity and enhances ambiguity.

Method

The discussion gathered information from various sources that included the National Autistic Society (NAS), Scottish schools, and voluntary parent organizations. It abided by the research requirements as it obtained ethical approval from the University Ethics Committee and the local Education councils (Sharma, Woolfson & Hunter, 2014). The avenues are ideal due to their proximity to the school’s location and the legal institutions. The method proves its reliability as it considers children of distinct age groups. While gathering information, children had to undergo a diagnosis of high-functioning autism (Diehl, Bennetto & Young, 2006). On the other hand, children in the TD entity attended a mainstream school without a diagnosis of derailed development to make it easier to assess the implications of autism (Lang, Regester, Lauderdale, et al., 2010). The method is reliable by gathering information from the immediate surroundings and sampling children according to their ages and gender. For instance, the HFASD group involved 22 children, 15 boys and seven girls, who gave the analogy of their past emotional encounters. They were also requested to imagine themselves in a narrative concerning an emotional past encounter and if they possess any feelings of anxiety (Sobel, Capps & Gopnik, 2005). The methodology also highlighted the study goals to children and their parents to ensure reliability in the collected data. The method is not compulsive in that it allowed the participants a room to withdraw if they wished and assured them that the information given would remain confidential.

Analysis

The research seems dependable in its mode of data analysis. It categorizes the research in various classes and then compiles it to establish a solid report. For instance, there are scenarios regarding fear and appraisal. Children were requested to develop situations they considered to be frustrating in both the TD and HFASD categories. While explaining their situations, every terminology is explained in detail to avoid confusion incidences. Upon completion, the research employs thematic analysis to identify frustrations in both cases (Sharma, Woolfson & Hunter, 2014). The analysis further classifies the findings in common themes such as peer rejection, school bullying, sibling arguments, and emphasis on over-compliant conduct from the teachers. The feedback is then rated on a scale and graded by professional psychologists. The analysis also allowed the participants to give their reactions based on various circumstances to classify the similarities further. The analysis further utilizes children’s cognitive abilities through a vocabulary test in children across various ages, and their competence is rated on various scales. HFASD’s autism test includes children between four and twelve years to assess their likelihood of developing autism-associated symptoms. Through the initiative, the research gains independent confirmation of the availability of autism signs in the HFASD entity and its absence in TD. category (Sobel, Capps & Gopnik, 2005). The analysis involves parental views by requesting them to either mark ‘yes’ or ‘no’ for every statement on the scale. The analysis recognizes the absence of disparities in gender or age between TD and HFASD entities through such procedures. The assessment highlights children’s scores in HFASD and TD categories. The analysis of both test categories indicates an average score in both cases to indicate that the children were appropriately categorized into TD and HFASD groups.

Conclusion and Implication

The research indicates that the HFASD category scored reliably higher in every class of anxiety disorders than the TD group. The research evidence indicates similarities with the initial parent’s report, indicating a similar trend. The outcomes confirm that the HFASD category’s appraisals resulted in better self-accountability, minimal problem-oriented and emotional-focused coping ability, and minimal future expectancy as opposed to the TD category. Appraisals are indeed affiliated with anxiety and fear for children in the HFASD category (Sharma, Woolfson & Hunter, 2014). Inflated self-blame is a significant issue underpinning anxiety. The latter does not only affect children with autism but also negatively impacts those possessing non-autism signs. Personal-accountability results to fear in TD children. Due to the small number of participants, it could be challenging to acknowledge minor implications associated with personal predictor variables. Nevertheless, appraisals can be affiliated in some manner with the shortage in TOM potential acknowledged in children encountering autism spectrum disorders. Since TOM capability relates to emotional complications, assessing the proposal that appraisal mediates in such an association (Sofronoff, Attwood & Hinton, 2005). Cognitive appraisals are critical in comprehending anxiety and fear and thus should establish the basis of cognitive restructuring measures employed to alleviate anxiety in the group. Further research should be carried out to target particular cognitions and formulate methodologies of handling children with anxiety and fear.

Proposal

Due to the quick spread of awareness regarding autism disorders across the world, the condition is being recognized, and intense research is underway. It is happening in middle and low-income countries, where every nation has an autism research organization. The progress of autism research and awareness globally is motivating. While conducting such research, it is advisable to incorporate populations with diverse linguistic, genetic, and familial backgrounds to broaden our comprehension of the disorder. There should be more collaborative measures regarding the situation as the importance of every research conducted becomes the only or one of a few assessments that may be drawn upon (Sharma, Woolfson & Hunter, 2014). There should be more intense measures to create awareness regarding autism in a timely manner. While carrying out the research, involve countries with huge populations such as India. Through such a model, it becomes possible to carry out research on a big scale that is unmatched by any of the middle and low-income countries. Countries such as India incorporate almost all types of focus and designs on the healthcare sectors and families and children. Conducting such research in India also ensures the coverage of developing countries with the inability to review and monitor research sufficiently. India has also abided by ethical research conduct for over thirty years and has vast experience regarding the matter. Also, highlight the principles in line with standard measures in the US. Such as informed consent, voluntariness, data privacy, and risk reduction. During the research, it is essential to require the registration of every clinical trial being carried out within a country’s borders.

In the research process, it is critical to incorporate non-governmental organizations as they consider the biggest significance of the local communities. Include organizations that operate in adult vocational training units, schools and provide a wide range of clinical services. Encourage advocacy and training initiatives to ensure accreditation of the involved professionals. Upcoming organizations should seek knowledge from others who have researched for longer to ensure input credibility (Sofronoff, Attwood & Hinton, 2005). There should be the establishment of a code of conduct and ethics to facilitate practice for therapeutic initiatives operating in an interdisciplinary context. There should be efficient screening and diagnosis of autism while ensuring secrecy of individual information across government-financed projects that share the information. Ensure reliable communication regarding the risks of autism in non-affected children depending on the genetic setting. There should be proper genetic studies, intervention research, and epidemiological work upon data collection. Confidentiality affiliated with genetic testing is paramount to eliminate stigmatization and segregation within the study community. During the research, it is crucial to educate the participants on the disparities between heredity and disparity as most of the genes acknowledged for autism possess a de-novo mutation. Since autism comprehension is still inadequate in developed countries, it is proper to ensure intense awareness in developing nations with minimal internet access. Engage in regular blood sampling to facilitate doctors to offer information regarding what may be done to fix autism in their children. Genetic researchers should go beyond acquiring informed consent to ensure that the nontherapeutic form of genetic research is properly comprehended by participants. This will also create room for disclosure of the shortcomings of the present information regarding autism genetics (Daley, Singhal & Krishnamurthy, 2013). Genetic tests for autism in countries with huge populations will encounter better reception across the world and minimize its recurrence across the world. Genetic research for autism should be carried out considering probable future consequences to ensure proper decision-making. It is also recommendable to consider the use of relevant screening and diagnostic measures to ensure information credibility.

References

Alfano, C.A., Beidel, D.C. & Turner, S.M. (2008) Negative self-imagery among adolescents with social phobia: a test of an adult model of the disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 37: 327–336.

Creswell, C.A., Schneiring, C. & Rapee, RM (2005) Threat interpretation in anxious children and their mothers: comparison with nonclinical children and the effects of treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy 43(10): 1375–1381.

Daley, T. C., Singhal, N., & Krishnamurthy, V. (2013). Ethical considerations in conducting research on autism spectrum disorders in low and middle-income countries. Journal of autism and developmental disorders43(9), 2002-2014.

Diehl, J.J., Bennetto, L. & Young, E.C. (2006) Story recall and narrative coherence of high functioning children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 34(1): 87–102.

Lang, R., Regester, A., Lauderdale, S., et al. (2010) Treatment of anxiety in autism spectrum disorders using cognitive behavior therapy: a systematic review. Developmental Neurorehabilitation 13(1): 53–63.

Miers, A.C., Blote, A.W. & Westenberg, P.M. (2011) Negative social cognitions in socially anxious youth: distorted reality or a kernel of truth? Journal of Child and Family Studies 20: 214–233.

Nezlek, J.B., Vansteelandt, K., Mechelen, IV, et al. (2008) Appraisal emotion relationships in daily life. Emotion 8(1): 145–150.

Sharma, S., Woolfson, M.L., & Hunter, C.S. 2014. Maladaptive cognitive appraisals in children with high-functioning autism: Associations with fear, anxiety, and theory of mind.

Sofronoff, K., Attwood, T & Hinton, S. (2005) A randomized controlled trial of a CBT intervention for anxiety in children with Asperger syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46: 1152–1160.

Sobel, D.M., Capps, L.M & Gopnik, A. (2005) Ambiguous figure perception and theory of mind understanding in children with autistic spectrum disorders. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 23: 159–174.

Time is precious

Time is precious

don’t waste it!

Get instant essay
writing help!
Get instant essay writing help!
Plagiarism-free guarantee

Plagiarism-free
guarantee

Privacy guarantee

Privacy
guarantee

Secure checkout

Secure
checkout

Money back guarantee

Money back
guarantee

Related Research Paper Samples & Examples

Media Account Analysis: National Geographic, Research Paper Example

National Geographic is an established Instagram account with over 241 million followers. In all its posts, National Geographic focuses on oceans, land, wildlife, human ingenuity, [...]

Pages: 2

Words: 567

Research Paper

Health Reasons for Abortion, Research Paper Example

Abortion remains one of the most controversial subjects in the world, as some people support that it should be freedom while others believe it is [...]

Pages: 3

Words: 720

Research Paper

Indigenous Caribbean Art, Research Paper Example

Introduction The portrayal of cultural characteristics that are important to the populations that are native to that location is a common feature of the indigenous [...]

Pages: 9

Words: 2341

Research Paper

Jean Lamarr, Research Paper Example

Introduction Different cultures have different ways of fostering creativity and imagination. However, since people might be impacted by values and norms from different cultures, artists [...]

Pages: 5

Words: 1511

Research Paper

The Oppression of Indigenous People in Layli Long Soldier’s Whereas, Research Paper Example

Introduction Colonization perpetrated the oppression of indigenous communities. Also, the struggle against cultural imperialism lay at the heart of oppression as the culture of native [...]

Pages: 7

Words: 2029

Research Paper

Reviled and Loved Prompt, Research Paper Example

Introduction The media and channels of communication are vital in passing information in a society (Lovari et al., 2020, p315-p328). The information is specifically addressed [...]

Pages: 7

Words: 1948

Research Paper

Media Account Analysis: National Geographic, Research Paper Example

National Geographic is an established Instagram account with over 241 million followers. In all its posts, National Geographic focuses on oceans, land, wildlife, human ingenuity, [...]

Pages: 2

Words: 567

Research Paper

Health Reasons for Abortion, Research Paper Example

Abortion remains one of the most controversial subjects in the world, as some people support that it should be freedom while others believe it is [...]

Pages: 3

Words: 720

Research Paper

Indigenous Caribbean Art, Research Paper Example

Introduction The portrayal of cultural characteristics that are important to the populations that are native to that location is a common feature of the indigenous [...]

Pages: 9

Words: 2341

Research Paper

Jean Lamarr, Research Paper Example

Introduction Different cultures have different ways of fostering creativity and imagination. However, since people might be impacted by values and norms from different cultures, artists [...]

Pages: 5

Words: 1511

Research Paper

The Oppression of Indigenous People in Layli Long Soldier’s Whereas, Research Paper Example

Introduction Colonization perpetrated the oppression of indigenous communities. Also, the struggle against cultural imperialism lay at the heart of oppression as the culture of native [...]

Pages: 7

Words: 2029

Research Paper

Reviled and Loved Prompt, Research Paper Example

Introduction The media and channels of communication are vital in passing information in a society (Lovari et al., 2020, p315-p328). The information is specifically addressed [...]

Pages: 7

Words: 1948

Research Paper

Get a Free E-Book ($50 in value)

Get a Free E-Book

How To Write The Best Essay Ever!

How To Write The Best Essay Ever!