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Brain Development Through the Concepts of Neuroplasticity, Annotated Bibliography Example

Pages: 1

Words: 1491

Annotated Bibliography

Background                                                                        

The capacity of the brain to develop its components and further improve its function based on human experience has been considered as an impossible condition in the early 1960’s. It was hard for the scientists of the said era to specifically accept that the brain develops further even at the point of one’s adult years. Relatively, only a few of the said experts relatively considered the possibility of neurons developing in the human brain after birth. However, along with the progress of technology and the insistent doubt on the matter, some scientists pursued further research and found out that in the case of the brain, development is a constant variable that improves its function which also affects the entire condition of the individual’s behavior towards different situations that he engages in through life. In the presentation that follows, five primary research documents shall be examined as to how they would be able to help in enhancing the research regarding the history, developments and the applicability of neuroplasticity in modern medical science.

Beaumont, Geneviève; Mercier, Pierre-Emmanuel, Malouin, Jackson (2011).”Decreasing phantom limb pain through observation of action and imagery: A case series“. Pain Medicine 12 (2): 289–299. The condition of thinking is a primary function empowered by the human brain. In this case, it could be analyzed that the physiology of the brain directly influences the psychology of human attitude. This function of the brain instantiates a strong proof that the brain indeed develops through time, especially in the aspect of initiating considerable reaction to specific conditions that the body needs to contend with. In the research of Beaumont and her colleagues, this specific fact is addressed in relation to a case study that involves the utilization of imagery that the brain facilitates to regulate the existence of pain. It could be analyzed that somehow, the establishment of the belief that the brain develops further through time is based from the desire of creating a better source of recovery for amputees. In this case, Beaumont(et al) manifests a definite stance in showing how a phantom limb could alleviate the pain that amputees feel after the undergoing the operation. Notably, such study denotes the utilization of an experimental approach that insists on the need to deal with actual employees and subjecting them to mind conditioning practices.

Such approach was taken into consideration and relatively, this study reveals that the said practice impacts the attitude of the patients or participants towards dealing with pain. Along the process, it has been realized that amputees feel the pain of the operation even after it was done. The amputation seems to remain as a long-time pain that they have to endure even after they already physically lose a part of their body to the operation. However, through creating a phantom limb through imagination, the brain was observed to respond accordingly to the treatment allowing the patients to withstand the pain through positively filling up the void in their physical attributes after the operation. Utilizing this research as a base reference for the study is expected to make a distinctive course of describing how neuroplasticity works for the developmental recovery of patients experiencing the phantom-limb syndrome.

Flor H, Elbert T, Knecht S, Wienbruch C, Pantev C, Birbaumer N et al. (1995). “Phantom-limb pain as a perceptual correlate of cortical reorganization following arm amputation”. Nature 375: 482–484. Adjustment has been proven an unavoidable situation in the human brain. Although the past studies impose on the possibility by which the brain stops producing neurons that further indicates the function of the brain to adjust, the current research options are more supportive of the fact that the brain has the capacity to further produce neurons and alter cortical map arrangements depending on the changes that the human body engages with. In the observation-study that Flor (et al) presented, it was imposed that the phantom-limb syndrome among amputees is a rather common matter due to the fact that the brain’s plasticity suggests the connection of neurons and the communication that exists between them does not immediately terminate after the amputation. Instead, the sending of message between neurons continues to exist. This is the reason why pain still exists over time even after the operation.

This is the reason why the researchers of this study suggests that the reorganization of the cortical map be undergone so as to dictate a sense of adjustment on the part of the patient’s brain function. This will allow the neurons to replicate the function they used to incur for the lost part of the body. This would make it easier for the patient to perceive that the amputated part does not have to feel pain anymore.

Utilizing the case that was examined in this study would enhance the research’s capacity to show how the adaptive mechanism of the brain’s neurons to respond to a lost function in the body describes the primary function of the principles of neuroplasticity in the human brain. Understanding the concepts suggested in this research shall further improve the condition of applying neuroscience elements relating to neuroplasticity which is expected to increase competence in medical science.

Pascual-Leone, A., Freitas, C., Oberman, L., Horvath, J. C., Halko, M., Eldaief, M. et al. (2011). Characterizing brain cortical plasticity and network dynamics across the age-span in health and disease with TMS-EEG and TMS-fMRI. Brain Topography, 24, 302-315. The brain’s neuroplasticity is very much dependent on age-range. There are instances when the said aspect of plasticity becomes dominative in certain periods of time alone. To prove this fact, Pascual-Leone(et al) tried to examine different aspects of brain function through time and age and how such conditions impact the manner by which the brain responds to situations therefore relatively affecting the brain’s plasticity as a whole. In this study, the condition of the brain’s overall structure has been examined through EEG and MRI especially in relation to the condition of those who are undergoing particular clinical situations. Utilizing this study for the research’s established foundation would provide a logical proof about how the brain functions in relation to neuroplasticity and how such aspect of brain development is affected by age and individual experience. The lucid presentation of facts shall greatly help in the process of defining what neuroplasticity is and how it directly impacts the brain’s overall function through time.

Pascual-Leone, A., Amedi, A., Fregni, F., & Merabet, L. B. (2005). The plastic human brain cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 377-401. An examination of brain cortex have been identified by Pascual-Leone and colleagues in this study. Specifically indicating how the neuron in the cerebral cortex operates from the point of birth towards growth and adulthood, this study creates a vivid indication on how neuroplasticity is established as a person ages. In consideration with brain synapses, the process of transmitting information from one neuron to another is basically given attention to. How this aspect impacts the brain’s neuroplasticity is further described herein. This is the reason why utilizing this as a relative reference for the research would provide a good source of understanding on how the brain cortex responds to several changes in a human’s life based on age and experience altogether. This would further improve the parallel utilization of psychology in the development of procedures indicated in the aspects of medical science and dealing with several health cases of patients.

Seifert, F. & Maihöfner, C. Functional and structural imaging of pain-induced neuroplasticity. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology 2011; 24: 515–523. The field of anesthesiology specifically aims to lower down the rate of pain being induced through particular medical applications that are used to treat crucial health cases. In relation to this, Seifert tries to create a distinctive description on how an enhanced understanding of neuroplasticity actually improves the manner by which such rate of pain is reduced. The process of synaptic pruning has also been considered in this research and relatively been given direct explanation as to how it impacts the approach of implicating the application of anesthesia during particular medical proceedings. Branching out to the concept of anesthesiology and reducing pain, this research shall help improve the manner by which the role of medical science in pain-management is actuated through the application of the concepts of neuroplasticity.

References

Beaumont, Geneviève; Mercier, Pierre-Emmanuel, Malouin, Jackson (2011). “Decreasing phantom limb pain through observation of action and imagery: A case series“. Pain Medicine 12 (2): 289–299.

Flor H, Elbert T, Knecht S, Wienbruch C, Pantev C, Birbaumer N et al. (1995). “Phantom-limb pain as a perceptual correlate of cortical reorganization following arm amputation”. Nature 375: 482–484.

Pascual-Leone, A., Freitas, C., Oberman, L., Horvath, J. C., Halko, M., Eldaief, M. et al. (2011). Characterizing brain cortical plasticity and network dynamics across the age-span in health and disease with TMS-EEG and TMS-fMRI. Brain Topography, 24, 302-315.

Pascual-Leone, A., Amedi, A., Fregni, F., & Merabet, L. B. (2005). The plastic human brain cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 377-401.

Seifert, F. & Maihöfner, C. Functional and structural imaging of pain-induced neuroplasticity. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology 2011; 24: 515–523.

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