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Cancer Cell Lines, Annotated Bibliography Example

Pages: 8

Words: 2279

Annotated Bibliography

Fang CY, Tsai YD, Lin MC, Wang M, Chen PL, Chao CN, Huang YL, Chang D, Shen CH Inhibition of human bladder cancer growth by a suicide gene delivered by JC polyomavirus virus-like particles in a mouse model, The Journal of Urology® (2015), doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2015.01.084

The researchers employs JCPy virus like particles to deliver the genes in the human urothelial carcinoma cells for possible therapeutically investigation. The reporters uses plasmids Pegfpn-n3, for expressing green florescent protein , LacZ expressions plasmids bearing CMV  or mucn (Muc 1) promoter and functional plasmids , PUMVCL-TK, for expressing thymidine kinase (TK) were packaged into JCPy VLPs (The Journal of Urology, 2015). Then plasmid DNA were transduced vial the JCPy VLPs into human urothelical carcinoma cell in viro and intro xenogrfted human blander tumor nodules on vivo. The study found that Pedfp-n3 was delivered and that GFP was expressed in both human urothelial carcinoma cell in vitro and the tumor nodules of mice on vivo. The researcher determined that after JCPy VLP transduction, the TK transgene was also functioning vitro and in vivo. In addition, the size of the TK gene transuded urotheliial carcinoma nodules was drastically reduced in the presence of acyclovir.  Moreover, selective Mucl-LacZ expression in human urothelical carcinoma cells transduced by JCPy VLP was demostrted.  The finding of this study provides a possible approach for human urothelial carcinoma gene therapy by the use of the JCPy VLP in future.

Jingfeng L., Yuxuan L. Jihong S., Yurong Z., Yajing Z. , Xiaoming Y. (2015)  Adeno-associated virus-mediated cancer gene therapy: Current status. Cancer Letters. 356 347–356

The objective of the article is to provide up-to-date knowledge on AAV mediated cancer gene therapy. Over time gene therapy has proofed to be one of the frontier modern medicine.  Adeno associated virus (AAV) mediated gene therapy is a promising approach to treat cancer and other related disease. AAV mediated cancer gene therapies have rapidly advanced due to their superiority compared to other gene carrying vectors (Jingfeng et al, 2015). For instance compared to other therapies, AAV lacks pathogen city, it has ability to transfer dividing and non-dividing cell, low host immune response, and long-term expression. The researcher concluded that AAV offer a number of advantages as compared to other vectors. There is thus need for more effort to lead to the development of AAV mediated gene therapy in different cancers. To this, end the researcher note that promising preclinical and clinical result has opened new avenues for efficient management of malignancy using AAV integrated gene therapy.

Aied M A., Rola A.G., Abdul M. A., Sami Abdo R. A., Hazlan H. D, Noor H,  Abu K., Abdulsamad A. (2013). Apoptosis Induction, Cell Cycle Arrest and in Vitro Anticancer Activity of Gonothalamin in a Cancer Cell Lines. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 13 (10), 5131-5136

In this study the researchers aimed to proof the hypothesis that ‘gonithalimin has a cytotocicity effect against several cancer cell lines including cervical cancer cell with the apoptosis as the mode of cell death induced on Hela cell by goniothalamin’.  Cancer is still one of the most devastating diseases in the world (Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, Vol 13, 2012). Most of its current treatment have a number of undesired adverse side effects.  The objective of the study is to investigate, ginothalamin, for cytotoxicity properties against cervical cancer (HeLa), breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and colon cancer (HT29) cell as well as normal mouse fibroblast (3T3) using MTT essay. The researchers found that according to Fluorescence microscopy GTN  can induce apoptosis in HeLa cells in a time dependant manner.  In addition, the flow cytometrly HeLa cells revealed that, those cell that were treated with GTN, could be arrested in S phase. The study revealed that Posphatidyl serine properties that were present during apoptosis enable early detection in the cell. Using the annexing V/PI double staining it could be shown that GTN induce early apoptosis on HeLa cell after 24, 48 and 72 hours. The researchers concluded that gonithalimin has a promising cytotocicity effect against several cancer cell lines including cervical cancer cell with the apoptosis as the mode of cell death induced on Hela cell by goniothalamin. In general, the study found that gonithalum (GNT) has selective cytotoxic effect toward cervical cancer, colon cancer and breast carcinoma, but not normal mouse fibroblast cells. This result are good, thus the compound has potential of being used as anti cancer drug since it is non-toxic to healthy cells

Yulan, Y., Bing L., Jin, Z., Yang, L., and Xueffen B.(2015). Apoptotic induction of lung adenocarcinomawwg A549 cell infected by recombinant  RVG  Newcastle disease virus (Rl-vg) in vitro. molecular medicine report 11: 317-326.

The study investigates a recombinant avirulent NDV lasota expressing the labies virus glycoprotein. The researchers try to examine its anocolytic effect on the lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line and evaluate it to serves as a vaccine against lung cancer. In the study the researchers infected A549 cell with rL-RVG virus and analyzed by MTT western bolt, polymerized chain reaction, imunofloresence, terminal deoxynucleitidy transfers DUTP, nick end labeling and flow cyometric analyses (molecular medicine reports, 2015). The study found that Rl-RVG strain was able to suppress lung cancer cell growth and promote lung cancer cell apoptosis extent than the wild NDV strain. The researchers concluded that the rl-RVG is a potential antitumor agent. This study provides a strong foundation for vaccines studies in future. However detailed mechanism underlying the anti cancer activity of l-RVG requires further studies. This study provides a strong evidence for the potential of RL-RVG to be used for clinical treatment cancer.

Stephen J. Russell and Kah-Whye Peng. Viruses as anticancer drugs: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. Vol.28 No.7

The researchers use the data from ongoing phase I and II clinical trials to test the potential of ancolytic virus as anti cancer drug. The study introduces concepts that are relevant to the use of virus as anti cancer drugs. The article emphasizes on the targeting mechanism as well as safety and efficiency issues that are currently limiting their clinical success. From the date evaluated the researchers found out that tumor regression can occur even after systemic virus delivery (TRENDS in Pharmacological Sciences Vol.28 no.7). The study also found that the clinical potency of ancolytic viruses must be increased for the to be more effective cancer therapy and that it is likely that their full potential will be realized on when they can be safely administered to the patients receiving concurrent immunesupressisive therapy. The researcher anticipated that, to assure safe deployment in the setting antibody depletion and transient immune suppression, future ancolytic viruses will have to be more potent. in addition more tumor specific than those currently tested and amenable to non invasive pharmacological monitoring. In this case, Russell and Peng in the above article affirm that oncolytic illness is being considered as anticancer drugs that are highly reliable and administered mostly in hospitals nowadays though very expensively. Notably it causes less damage to the non-affected tissues in the humanly body. In addition, these drugs have to be administered at the right time with more precautions concerning the negative damage they can cause if not properly used. However, this being one of the most used means to cure cancer it faces many challenges as well. Apparently, this is the biggest challenge among them. There must be an increase in clinical potency; if this is not realized then the effectiveness of cancer treatment will be slightly lower.

Rola  A., Aied, M. A.,  Abdul, M. A., Aini, I.,  Abdul, R. O., Khatijah, Y•, and Riyadh, S. (2011). Cytolytic Effects and Apoptosis Induction of Newcastle Disease Virus Strain AF2240 on Anaplastic Astrocytoma Brain Tumor Cell Line.

According to the research conducted by Rola Ali, Alabsi and Abdul Manaf on the Newcastle disease virus, they found out that; Oncytolytic viruses are viruses that replicate very fast in cancer cells hence destroying the normal cell as well as affecting them on a larger portion. On the other hand, Current studies on Newcastle disease virus AF2240 affirms that this virus is one of the means that helps in reduction of tumor without harming the normal cells. For instance, a research conducted by Lorence indicated that Newcastle disease virus used to replicate and hence killing tumor effectively more than the normal cells (Journal of Neurochem Res, 2011). On the other hand, it is one of the best methods of curing cancer diseases on humanity.  The above fact affirms that, it has the ability of killing tumor by shrinking the cells hence causing less damage on the body. Nevertheless, this in turn creates a reliable means of cancer treatment in humanity when discovered on the early stages such as breast cancer, cervical cancer just to mention a few. Generally, Newcastle disease virus has emerged the most commonly used resulting to less negative effects when it comes to cancer treatment.

Sébastien A. Felt, Megan J. Moerdyk-Schauwecker, Valery Z. Grdzelishvili. Induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells by vesicular stomatitis virus. Virology 474 (2015) 163–173

According to the statistics made by Sebastian Felt et al, illustrates that effectiveness of oncolytic viruses treatment relies in the capability of replication-competent viruses, with the aim of destroying the cancer-infected cells on humanity. However, it is noted that, the human pancreas is the main organ targeted and affected by this form of cancer disease. For instance, ten peoples pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells in line with three different vesicular stomatitis viruses, helped in the study of induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cells (Virology 474 (2015) 163–173). Resulted that all the three vesicular stomatitis proved to be more resistant and stable. Hence, induction of apoptosis cancer cells has proven to be one of the reliable ways of reducing cancer diseases in the human body. This has been proven to be reliable source among many doctors and nurses not forgetting research analysts globally.

Markus J.V. Va¨ha¨-Koskela a,b,*, Jari E. Heikkila¨ a , Ari E. Hinkkanen a a A˚ bo Oncolytic viruses in cancer therapy. Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy and Turku Immunology Centre, Turku, Finland b Turku Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Turku, Finland Received 5 December 2006

Oncolytic therapy by Vaha’s argument, they illustrate it as one of the promising cancer reductions on humanity. However, according to them, it faces some of the hindrances that are acting as an obstacle over the reduction of cancerglobally (Cancer letters, 2007). The essence that viruses have the ability to eliminate cancer has remained in the minds of many scientists since time immemorial. It is noted therefore; among the first viruses that were used for treatment of around 30 patients were rabies viruses in the 1950s. Accordingly, this was the real timing of the eruption of oncolytic virus efficiency type four. Thereafter, this has led to the growth of oncolytic therapy among doctors with the aim of cancer reduction and treatment among different continents. Amazingly, despite the improvement of research as well as the growth of oncolytic virus’s treatment has remained one of the most fastening challenges. One major reason for this is the inadequate availability of animal model that can be used to imitate cancer in humanity. A problem that is only solved by using more advanced models instead of the readily available. Considerably, mechanization of cancer viruses has to be considerable to avoid resistance of treatment using the available animal models. In this regards, clinical and preclinical therapists studies accumulates causing this study not to be effective in the way it is supposed to be. This has resulted to lack off effectiveness and efficiency in oncolytic cancer therapy. Nevertheless, there is no clarity in which form of therapy offers the best and reliable results amongst oncolytic and others. Additionally, the above treatment involves the combination of different radiations to conduct the therapy effectively. Significantly, the combination of different radiations leads the results to be vast and requires improved examination that will come with the right conclusion. Generally, some of the limiting factors stated above are the ones causing oncolytic therapy to be less effective currently. However, research made by David Lewis states that if more commitment is made on this therapy it would be one of the most reliable means of cancer treatment.

References

Aied M A., Rola A.G., Abdul M. A., Sami Abdo R. A., Hazlan H. D, Noor H,  Abu K., Abdulsamad A. Apoptosis Induction, Cell Cycle Arrest and in Vitro Anticancer Activity of Gonothalamin in a Cancer Cell Lines. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 13 (10), 5131-5136.

Fang CY, Tsai YD, Lin MC, Wang M, Chen PL, Chao CN, Huang YL, Chang D, Shen CH Inhibition of human bladder cancer growth by a suicide gene delivered by JC polyomavirus virus-like particles in a mouse model, The Journal of Urology® (2015), doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2015.01.084.

Jingfeng L., Yuxuan L. Jihong S., Yurong Z., Yajing Z. , Xiaoming Y. (2015)  Adeno-associated virus-mediated cancer gene therapy: Current status. Cancer Letters. 356 347–356.

Markus J.V. Va¨ha¨-Koskela a,b,*, Jari E. Heikkila¨ a , Ari E. Hinkkanen a a A˚ bo Oncolytic viruses in cancer therapy. Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy and Turku Immunology Centre, Turku, Finland b Turku Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Turku, Finland Received 5 December 2006

Rola  A., Aied, M. A.,  Abdul, M. A., Aini, I.,  Abdul, R. O., Khatijah, Y•, and Riyadh, S. (2011). Cytolytic Effects and Apoptosis Induction of Newcastle Disease Virus Strain AF2240 on Anaplastic Astrocytoma Brain Tumor Cell Line.

Sébastien A. Felt, Megan J. Moerdyk-Schauwecker, Valery Z. Grdzelishvili. Induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells by vesicular stomatitis virus. Virology 474 (2015) 163–173.

Stephen J. Russell and Kah-Whye Peng. Viruses as anticancer drugs: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. Vol.28 No.7.

Yulan, Y., Bing L., Jin, Z., Yang, L., and Xueffen B.(2015). Apoptotic induction of lung adenocarcinomawwg A549 cell infected by recombinant  RVG  Newcastle disease virus (Rl-vg) in vitro. molecular medicine report 11: 317-326,

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