Contemporary Tourism Issue and Topic, Essay Example
Ultimately, the inspiration to travel derives from the customers want to be satisfied with their lives. Individuals that consider travel to be luxurious will be more likely to travel than those that consider luxury to be defined differently. The tourist experience is different four each individual that chooses to become involved in it. Because each person has a very distinct personality, it is likely that these people also have distinct travel preferences. Overall, it could be said that individuals engage in the tourist experience because they wish to gain happiness (DeLeire & Kalil, 2010). This could be achieved by ensuring that trips meet requirements as defined by Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. To ensure that travel goals are met, tourists have many different options to help them achieve the trips of their dreams.
One of the factors that impacts the tourist experience is related to the economic challenges that particular regions face. Individuals in regions that are currently experiencing economic depression are less likely to travel and may attend vacation locally. On the other hand, individuals from nations with stable economies become more likely to travel to locations that are experiencing economic depressions because this tends to allow them to gain a comprehensive experience in this region for less money. For example, many Americans enjoy visiting Eastern Europe because it is a less expensive journey than travelling to Western Europe, in spite of the larger distance between the two territories.
Another factor that impacts the tourist experience is the proximity that tourists have to their destination. This is also related to the amount of time that individuals have to travel. When people go on vacation, they are often required to take vacation time off of work. Because employees have a limited number of vacations days they are able to use, some individuals prefer to travel more frequently but for shorter periods of time (Maslow, 1954). For an individual living in New York, for example, this may mean flying to Florida for a weekend or simply visiting Niagara Falls. Individuals that do not have the ability to take off of work for a long period of time are not limited to a short list of tourist attractions. However, instead of touring a faraway country, these individuals are able to find beauty in sights that have a closer proximity. Individuals that are able to take off of work or are retired are able to take vacations that span over a longer period of time. Therefore, these individuals are more likely to travel to destinations that are overseas or to participate in an extended tour of a continent.
Interestingly, the want and ability to travel is closely related to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. For a person to enjoy a particular vacation destination, their psychological needs must first be met (Mittelman, 1991). Therefore, tourists will preferentially want to visit destinations that make them happy. On the other end of this belief is the thought that tourists will want to visit locations that will help them avoid stress. For some tourists, this may mean only visiting areas in which they will have smartphone access so they could remain connected to their contacts and internet services. For others, a stress reducing trip may include an area that allows them to lounge and relax. However, it is important to consider that all tourists have their own understandings of what make a stressful or carefree trip. Thus, it is important for tourists to carefully consider the aspects of their personality that will help them decide upon the best tourist experience for their individual taste.
While psychological needs reflect the basis of human needs according to Maslow’s hierarchy, the next level of importance for tourists is a consideration of safety needs. Prior to the 9/11 terrorists attacks, most individuals felt relatively comfortable with flying to travel destinations. However, after the attacks, the enhanced screening in the airport in addition to media reports on terrorism make consumers feel less secure than they had in previous years. In addition, it is important to understand that many people have a general fear of flying. These travel anxieties have the potential to reduce the range within which an individual will decide to travel. Furthermore, some people have a larger safety zone that others. Tourists that do not feel safe leaving their own home will be more likely to visit close by destinations, while those that are generally more confident about the state of safety will wander further. Overall, the perception of safety in travel is closely related to the ideas that the media portrays. People are less likely to travel to destinations that make them feel that they will be harmed. For example, many people believe that hotel rooms in Mexico are insecure and that the hotel staff will enter the room and steal the tourist’s belongings. While this will not necessarily be the case, this rumor is enough to dissuade some people from travelling to Mexico. This demonstrates that the tourist experience will differ for people in part due to the media sources they are exposed to and to what extent they will listen to this advice.
Next on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is the need for “belongingness”. This term applies to the need to travel with people or alone (Tay & Diener, 2011). Individuals that opt to travel alone have the ability to potentially receive the best travel deals, while those that travel in groups are able to enjoy the company of others. This demonstrates that some tourists have a greater need for belongingness than others, but this need may define the type of vacation they are likely to take. Individuals with a high level of belongingness may be more likely to travel to tourist destinations in which there are a large number of people, such as Paris, France. On the other hand, people that have a diminished sense of belongingness may be more likely to go on a hiking trip to be in an area that is largely secluded from people. Thus, people that are very outgoing and friendly are likely to engage in a vacation experience that differs significantly from individuals that are introverted.
The last two steps on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are esteem needs and self-actualization. These two components could be considered as parts of one big category because esteem can contribute to the development of self-actualization. Different tourism experiences can cause the development of these traits differently in tourists. Many people go on vacation hoping that they will learn something new or have a new experience. Individuals that are willing to explore a new location for a period of time will have the opportunity to interact with people from different cultures and who live different ways of life. In this context, these individuals will be able to find a new understanding of themselves that contributes to enhanced confidence and self-actualization.
In conclusion, self-actualization is the ultimate goal of the tourist experience. However, it requires that the needs of tourists according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, are met before this can be possible. Therefore, it is important for each individual to select vacation options that are most suitable for their personality types so they will be able to accomplish this level of satisfaction from their journeys.
Expansion, Seasonally and Competition
Tourism management and marketing is an important component of the tourism industry due to the need to constantly analyse market trends and appeal to the needs of consumers. Of particular concern for these individuals is the need to promote expansion of tourism both in terms of season and the need to complete more effectively with other destinations. It is the responsibility of the tourism manager and marketer to make their travel destination appear more appealing than those marketed by their competitors. Considering that the competition is so vast, this is a challenging activity. Therefore, it is important for the management team to determine how to differentiate their products and services in a manner that most significantly appeals to their target demographic. Contributing to good business practices will intrinsically contribute to an expansion of successful tourism companies.
An important consideration with regards to tourism across the world is the importance of emerging markets. Countries like China have economies that are rapidly developing and therefore contributing to the ability of citizens across the country to travel to tourist destinations across the world. With the advent of laws that have been passed to limit travel restrictions, the Chinese people have been taking advantage of their newfound ability to travel by visiting popular tourist destinations in large numbers. As a consequence of this phenomenon it becomes apparent that it is necessary for tourism managers to determine how to appeal to groups that have emerging economies. In particular, it is reasonable to offer travel options and tourist destinations that offer programs in their language and have employees that understand some of the cultural traditions of these visitors (Levere, 2015). By making these individuals feel more at home abroad, they will become more likely to visit destinations that are specifically marketed towards them.
In addition, it is important for travel companies to understand the importance of seasonal travel. During holidays, travel is common and prices are high as a consequence. Therefore, tourism managers can most reasonably remain competitive with other companies by offering more affordable travel or destination options (Cooper, 2005). Furthermore, during gift giving seasons, it is reasonable to offer promotions for gifts in order to remain ahead of the competition in this manner as well. Customers are more likely to purchase their travel requirements from businesses that are willing to offer an incentive, so it is important for managers to analyse what the standard price is for their goods and services and to mark them down in a way that is appealing yet profitable. Determining which travel packages customers would want the most and providing slight discounts for them will help tourism businesses expand their practices.
According to Price et al.:
“Price wars have forced mass tourism operators to small margins, while ignoring the growing special interest market. Sustainability is now part of quality expectations and the industry as a whole has to reinvent itself to meet changing demands, while also embedding corporate social responsibility in a way that makes business sense” (Font et al., 2006).
Therefore, even though offering promotions is an occasionally effective method, it is important to consider that the deals provided still need to confer profitability for the agent. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to focus on the quantity of business that tourism firms are able to accommodate. To make this process easier and to reduce the net costs of these operations, it is beneficial for tourism managers to implement online features to support customer access to a greater extent. Providing customers a way to purchase vacation deals online and in person is also an advantageous way to enhance customer service. It is important for tourism managers to use their creativity within a reasonable scope to determine how to enhance their business practices. Expanding online presence is an important component of this because it will allow consumers across the world to gain an understanding of the company’s offerings.
In order for tourism companies to complete effectively, it is also important for them to differentiate themselves from other organizations. This is often challenging in a market in which most facilities offer the same packages for similar prices. However, companies can distinguish themselves by providing enhanced customer service. If consumers feel that their purchasing experience lacks stress and helps them achieve the vacation of their dreams, they will be more likely to return to the same company once more and to recommend the organization to their friends and family. Therefore, it is important for travel companies to distinguish themselves in this manner. There is little room for creativity as it pertains to the most popular travel deals, so it is necessary to compensate for this by using excellent business practices instead.
To more effectively improve business practices, it would be helpful for tourism companies to carefully consider who their target demographic is and to work harder to ensure that their marketing practices are able to reach these individuals effectively. Overall, it would be likely that tourism companies have different target demographics for different trips. For example wine tasting excursions would be recommended exclusively for individuals over the age of 18. In addition, certain trips would only be recommended to individuals with a certain amount of income to ensure that they would be able to afford the package of interest. However, attracting a more specific customer base can improve business practices and help organizations topple their competition. By being able to reach a greater percentage of the individuals that would be interested in the products being sold, tourism companies will be able to make a greater number of sales.
Overall, it is important to consider that the aspects that guide competition in the tourism industry are complex due to the limited options that many tourism agencies have as they pertain to options to rise above the competition. However, providing excellent service will create repeat business and possibly generate new customers through word of mouth advertising. In addition, modifying marketing practices to better reach the target demographic makes the ability for the organization to make sales more effective. Even if the yield of individual sales do not increase as a consequence of these alterations, companies will be able to compete more significantly as a result of the aforementioned recommendations. Therefore, it is important for these companies to focus on their customer service, seasonal promotions, and targeted marketing in order to improve their business practices.
Polar tourism is roughly defined as tourism that takes place in the “polar regions”. While most individuals think to vacation in warm places, many individuals have become bored with the typical tourist destinations they are offered and wish to take part in a trip that is considered to be a rare opportunity. As a consequence, many travel groups are now offering trips to the arctic. People are fascinated by the idea of artic creatures and seeing the beautiful scenery upon arrival. These trips were historically reserved for scientists studying weather and other issues of interest to science in these regions, but they have recently opened for visits to those who could afford the travel and brave the intense climates. In spite of the widespread popularity that these destinations allow, scientists are urging against future expeditions. When large amounts of people visit these regions, they are capable of releasing carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, into the air (Woehler et al., 1994). When this occurs, the melting of the polar ice caps speeds up. Therefore, allowing tourists to visit Polar Regions is having a negative impact on the destination itself, and this activity may eventually destroy the terrain.
Polar tourism is becoming a fad in part due to the fascination that many people have with the polar regions of the planet. Since they are not frequently travelled to, there is a form of mystique that surrounds polar journeys. In addition, these regions often contain animals that people aren’t used to seeing, polar bears and penguins are among a few. However, it is important to consider that by visiting these animals, their natural habitat is becoming destroyed. The polar ice caps are melting at an alarming rate, which is preventing the ability for polar bears to spread out across the land. This is impacting their eating and mating habits and is therefore contributing to a reduction of the polar bear population. In spite of these problems, many tourists wish to continue travelling to these sites because they wish to see the polar bears before they are completely extinct or forced to live in unnatural locations, such as zoos. However, in doing so, they are contributing to the rarity and mystique of the area, which will likely create a positive feedback loop and contribute to the development of an even larger amount of tourism.
Polar bear watching is an activity that tourists primarily conduct in Alaska. However, this terrain has been highly accessible over a long period of time and as a result, it is not too interesting to many tourists. Individuals that wish to participate in an adventure therefore prefer to travel to territories like Antarctica that have been little travelled. Modern improvements to technology have improved the lifestyle that individuals that visit the continent must face. In addition, the improved technology has contributed to the ability of people to more easily visit the land. While the interest in travelling to Antarctica is high, it is also important to consider that it is very dangerous. Throughout history, many ships have been trapped in ice in an attempt to reach the continent. However, warming events have contributed to the shrinking of these layers of ice, which has contributed to an easier way to access Antarctica. While this is beneficial for the tourists who wish to visit the area, it also makes the conditions more dangerous in some aspects. Because of the high incidence of melting ice, it is more likely that ice will break beneath the feet of scientists or tourists, contributing to injury or death. Prior to the melting, Antarctica was not considered safe and primarily individuals conducting research on the territory were able to remain on it. However, individuals are becoming increasingly interested in visiting this area and many want to do it sooner rather than later out of fear that it may no longer exist in the future.
Individuals that wish to engage in travel to Antarctica must often travel to New Zealand first. Tourism companies in this country provide tourists with flights over the area and will occasionally arrange visits to the area on foot. However, it is important to consider conditions in the air are harsh as well and individuals that elect to fly in these planes are posing a great risk to their lives.
The increase in concern from environmentalists about the welfare of Antarctica and other artic regions have contributed to the development of online exploration platforms that allow tourists to explore the island from the comfort of their home computer. While this does not replace the experience of physically visiting arctic regions, it allows people to learn about these areas in a manner that promotes the continued existence of the ice caps and the animals that depend on them for life. In addition, individuals that wish to gaze upon arctic wildlife can often so do by visiting select zoos. Overall, it is important to consider that many of these animals have been taken into captivity as a consequence of their status as endangered species. Therefore, promoting these wildlife rehabilitation centres is an ideal way to promote the continued existence of these animals. Furthermore visits to zoos with rare arctic animals is a more affordable experience than the alternative.
Even though the popularity of travelling to Antarctica and other parts of the arctic is increasing significantly, it is still important to consider that this type of trip is not desirable to a larger number of individuals. In a sense, it could be considered dark tourism because of the amount of destruction that is associated with it (Stone, 2012). As mentioned previously in the tourist experiences essay, people with diverse personalities are likely to participate in different types of travel. In particular, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs indicates that a secondary concern for tourists is safety. Therefore, many people lose interest in travelling to arctic regions when they learn of the danger of these experiences. On the other hand, there is a moderate number of people who will purposefully engage in dangerous explorations such as this.
Currently, travel to the artic is not heavily restricted, but is it necessary to understand that accessibility to these areas will likely diminish in the coming years. Certain parts of the artic are claimed territory, while others are under territorial dispute. However, the lack of safety of these areas is becoming apparent as the polar ice caps continue to melt. Therefore, it is plausible that the countries that believe themselves to be responsible over this land will prevent it from being accessible by general members of the public. While it is important to continue to allow scientists to study in these regions in order to gain a better understanding of the impacts on the environment, it will become increasingly more essential to remove the human impact that is contributing to a more rapid decline of the ice in these areas.
In spite of increasingly popularized travel to artic regions, there is still a significant lack of belief in global warming and climate change theories. Even though people are able to observe the impacts of this weather change for themselves, they are not able to understand their observations in a manner that could reasonably slow the melting of the polar ice caps they are contributing to. From the perspective of a tourism manager, it would be beneficial to take action to preserve the polar ice caps and help scientists determine how to facilitate the recovery of these regions. Overall, it is more likely that travel to these areas would be popular if these regions were not exposed to significant threats. Therefore, it is in the best interest of tourism managers and marketers to help prohibit travel to these regions and instead promote conservation. When it appears that these regions are safe, then it would be reasonable to market them as travel destinations. However, until this point, it is important to understand that there are some locations that are better not travelled to. While all tourism companies wish to make a profit from exciting vacation destination, business should not occur at the cost of the well-being of large landmasses in the artic (Wurzburger, 2009). If these practices continue, artic animals will become extinct and sea levels around the world will rise. Therefore, it is important to raise awareness to prevent irreversible damage to these beautiful regions. If we take action immediately, it is possible that future generations will be able to visit these sites freely and without worry about causing them to melt. For now, however, it is our responsibility to help make sure that this site can be enjoyed by others for many years to come.
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