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Criminal Behavior, Annotated Bibliography Example

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Annotated Bibliography

Jones, C.M. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Criminal Behavior. Rochester

Institute of Technology. http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/jones.html.

(Retrieved on February 25, 2013)

This research examines the affects that environment plays in a person’s propensity to criminal behavior. In addition, the idea of criminal behavior tendencies being a product of a person’s genetic make-up is also explored. It is also noted that evidence shows that many individuals who are incarcerated have psychological problems, and this is seen as a stigma in society, as psychological problems may be inherited. The research defines criminal behavior and uses twin, adoption and familial studies to measure it. Research study findings show that neurochemicals are activated in behavioral patterns and with certain tendencies, such as criminal behavior tendencies. According to the research, this is attributed to certain personality traits and disorders. This and influences in a person’s environment can leave them susceptible to developing criminal behavior tendencies. The research concludes that a combination of these factors, including a lack of moral development draw a tendency in an individual toward criminal activity.

National Institute of Justice. Physical Environment and Crime.

 https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/physenv.pdf (retrieved on February 25, 2013)

This research is a report that explores how environemental impacts can somehow reduce crime and criminal behavior in individuals. Crime prevention is explored and how aspects of the environment such as residential watches can help deter it. The study examines physical features of the environment and how they can influence the behavior of individuals, particularly those with criminal intentions. The rationale proposed is that criminals are orderly and operate according to what will get the crime done with the least amount of effort. This means they seek out opportunities based on the surroundings. The research concludes that the way a neighborhood looks is a good predictor of its crime rate. Therefore, redesign and strategic environmental positioning in these neighborhoods is an important factor in reducing crime.

 Princeton.edu. (2012). Functionalism (sociology). Retrieved from

 http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Functionalism_(sociology).html

 This literature piece focuses on the sociological context and perspective of how society influences behaviors such as criminal tendencies in certain individuals. It is explained that society is comprised of interrelated parts, and each of these parts adapt to form a complex structural system. This system is a combination of social norms, customs, traditions, institutions and laws. In addition, it is reported that each interrelated part of society is a contributing factor to the functioning of society. The research points out findings by sociologist, Herbert Spencer, who proposed that the different parts of society are like different parts of the body. His analogy implies that every part of society is integral for society to function successfully, just like every part of the human body is important for a properly functioning body.

This relates to criminal behavior in society in the sense that society creates the rules on how to control criminal behavior and criminals. It is down by coercion which threatens the cohesiveness of society and its functions. However, coercion is sometimes seen as a way to deter those who would do crimes, but it does not always work. The death penalty has yet to stop people from murdering others.

Regoli, R., Hewitt, J., & DeLisi, M. (2009). Delinquency in Society (8th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Publishers

This literature examines how conflict in society has a major influence on criminal behavioral tendencies of certain individuals. It highlights factors related to the conflict theory which deals with how groups of people disagree in society, namely, the haves and the have nots. It is stated this creates competition and power issues in society that are connected to the wealth of the upper class and how they control the lower class in society. This is stated as the reason for delinquency and criminal behavior in society.  This is due to the lower class often having an unfair apportionment of everything in society as well as a significant lack of resources to support the cost of living. It is perceived, by this theory, that many wealthy and upper class groups consider themselves as privileged and this creates a conflict in society, which can drive some individuals in the lower classes to develop criminal tendencies in attempt to lessen the disparities.

Cohen, P. (2011, June 19). Genetic Basis for Crime: A New Look. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/20/arts/genetics-and-crime-at-institute-of-justice-conference.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

This article focuses on the idea of genetics as a factor in criminal behavior, as opposed to social problems, addictions of access to weapons. This article explains that the answer to why criminal behavior exists may be found in the human genome. The study highlights panel discussions consisting of criminologists who propose creating a DNA database of genetic markers retrieved from forensic scientists. The article states that about 100 study findings show that genes are integral in criminal behavior. It is noted that this is in combination with environmental factors; however, the propensities are the same. The study has identified specific genes that may be linked to violent behavioral tendencies. It is also noted that if a person has a predisposition to violence based on genes, it does not mean that they will definitely become criminals. It does mean, however, that effective intervention is the key to deterring this tendency.

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