Boyle, Vicki L. R. N., B.S.N.; Canopy Roychoudhury, Ph.D.; Renee Beniak, R.N., B.S. L.N.H.A.; Lisa Cohn, M.S.; Albert Bayer, M.D.; & Ira Katz, M.D., Ph.D. (2003) Recognition and Management of Depression in Skilled-Nursing and Long-Term Care Settings Evolving Targets for Quality Improvement. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 12:3, May-June 2004.
This article addresses the depression that is associated with nursing home patients and the often overlooked factor that it is treatable. Because depression can be treated, there are options for a better quality of life for these elderly individuals. Michigan’s Quality Improvement Organization (MQIO) monitored 14 nursing facilities in order to improve care and assessment. The study shows that a certain amount of patients with depression was self disclosed and a certain percentage was found early on. The data shows progression for early detection and better care in nursing homes. However, there is still a lot of room for increased care and patient opportunities. There is also medication use and measurement which aids in the facility’s success as well.
Datto, Catherine J.; David W. Oslin; Joel E. Streim; Stephen M. Scheinthal; Suzanne DiFilippo; & Ira R. Katz. (2002) Pharmacologic Treatment of Depression in Nursing Home Residents: A Mental Health Services Perspective. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 15: 141.
This article is beneficial because it reflects the findings of two studies: the first one demonstrates the treatment for depression has a substantial, ecologically relevant affect in nursing homes and the second demonstrates the profound change have taken place in the clinical epidemiology of depression and the treatment in the nursing home. This paper also shows that there has been a significant change in the federal regulations that were implemented to improve the care quality. The change of depression diagnoses of nursing home residents changed from 10% in 1987 to 25% in 1999. The antidepressants that are being given to the nursing home residents have drastically increased and now there are additional problems that have surfaced and must be addressed for adequate treatment. There are new initiatives in public policies and research is necessary to make sure there is a high prevalence of antidepressants drugs is the most effective treatment.
Greenberg, Sherry A. (2007) The Geriatric Depression Scale: Short Form. AJN October Vol. 107, No. 10
Elderly patients have other ailments besides dementia and the aging of the body. This article discuses depression in older adults who have chronic conditions such as arthritis and heart disease. If these ailments are not treated in a timely manner or the patients are not made comfortable, depression may progress and affect their overall health dramatically. This study took a short form 15-question screening tool to determine if these older adults suffered from depression. This form simply focuses on the patients moods and can help the nurses and clinicians determine if additional care is necessary. Because depression is a mood disorder, it can affect cognitive and physical symptoms. This is why this test can be so beneficial for nurses and other health care providers because it can help find and diagnose the problem so it can be quickly addressed.
Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.PhD; Sheryl Zimmerman, PhD; Malaz Boustani, MD, MPH; Lea C. Watson, MD, MPH; Christianna S. Williams, PhD; & Peter S. Reed, PhD, MPH. (2005) Characteristics Associated With Depression in Long-Term Care Residents with Dementia. The Gerontologist Vol. 45, Special Issue I, 50–55.
This article would aid in the presenting the prevalence of depression in dementia patients that reside in long-term care facilities. The staff is described and the characteristics of the facility that may be associated with the depression. The characteristics of the dementia patients that are depressed are also examined. This paper also describes the assessment, prevalence, and treatment of the characteristics that coincide with dementia patients who have depression. This study showed that overall 25% of the participants were depressed. The depression was greater in for-profit nursing home residents. The study shows that improvement for nurses through depression training and involving mental health professionals need to be further investigated and utilized.
Irvin, Susan M. (1997) Treatment of Depression with Outpatient Electroconvulsive Therapy. March 1997, L 65, NO 3.
This article will aid in treatment methods for the elderly patients who are suffering from depression. Because depression is a serious and potentially life threatening condition that nurses and other health care professionals have to treat accordingly. The typical therapy is medication in conjunction with electroconvulsive therapy and psychotherapy. There is growing concern regarding the benefits and side effects of medication that is used to address depression. There has also been a lack of response and ability for the individual’s to be able to consistently take their medication. Outpatient maintenance ECT, performed under general anesthesia, is a safe, effective follow-up treatment for individuals with major depression who have undergone inpatient ECT. The benefit of electroconvulsive therapy will allow the patients with major depression, schizophrenia, or bipolar disorder a safe alternative for outpatient treatments. Skilled nurses, psychiatrists, anesthesia care providers, and family members must collaborate on the outpatient ECT treatment in order for it to be a potential option for success.
Johnson, Rebecca A., PhD, RN; & Andrea Gayer, BS. (2008) Puppy Love for Older Adults. Journal of Gerontological Nursing Vol. 34, No. 1.
This article addresses a way that aids in elderly depression in a much different way. It is done through the usage of animals. Animals add life and purpose to elderly individual’s who feel they are otherwise all alone. They are responsible for these pets and it allows them to feel needed and more active as a result. Studies have shown that continued interaction with animals reduces the feelings of loneliness, lower blood pressure, and decrease the risk of heart disease. There are many health benefits of animals for older adults that can decrease and prevent depression without any medication.
Mitchell, Alex J. & Venkatraghavan Kakkadasam. (2011) Ability of Nurses to Identify Depression in Primary Care, Secondary Care and Nursing Homes—A Meta-Analysis of Routine Clinical Accuracy. International Journal of Nursing Studies 48, 359–368.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify and address the ability of nurses to who work in primary care, secondary care, as well as nursing homes to be able to identify depression. This will be done by using their clinical skills. According to previous statistical evidence nurses working in the primary care field were more sensitive but had lower specificity than those nurses who work in a nursing home. Primary care nurses however are more cautious because of that they had greater accuracy in their case-finding. Nurses seem to have the same accuracy as doctors working in the same settings. In summary education and training seems to have the best influence over skills and knowledge of the nursing staff and their ability to address the necessary care. Nurses have difficulty in identifying depression in patients through their general care. Training is the key to changing these difficulties.
Sk¨ars¨ater, Ingela, PhD, RN & Ania Willman, BeD, PhD, RN. (2006) The Recovery Process in Major Depression An Analysis Employing Meleis’ Transition Framework for Deeper Understanding as a Foundation for Nursing Interventions. Advances in Nursing Science Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 245–259.
This paper raises the relevancy of the study that gives recommendations that are important for nurses. These included testing the efficiencies of the proposed interventions. The cultural similarities and differences were not identified so this study will need to be replicated. Mental illness is a growing problem. Because of this fact, nursing research based on interventions to prevent or minimize illness while increasing the quality of life. The secondary study was the analysis of the individuals who are recovering from depression. The purpose was to gain a better understanding of the recovery process that is necessary for depression and how nurses can intervene with the treatment and healing. This study also reveals the transition period and how successful the nurse’s role can be.
Smith, Marianne PhD, RN; Mary Ellen Stolder, PhD, RN; Benjamin Jaggers, MSN, ARNP; Megan Fang Liu, PhD, RN; & Chris Haedtke, MSN, RN. (2013) Depression Training in Nursing Homes: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Study. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 34:90–102.
This article addressed the late-life depression that occurs among residents at nursing homes, and that is often ignored by the nurses. The study uses a self-directed CD based training program for depression. It is a pilot study that mixes methods to determine feasibility issues, to evaluate nurse’s perception of training, and to evaluate the resident’s depression-related outcome in traditional conditions. The study shows that depression training is very important for improving the ability to recognize depression and nursing care from day to day. However, diverse factors have to be addressed to make sure there are optimal outcomes. The nurse’s evaluation shows that using standardized psychosocial interventions and assessments were feasible having a positive impact on the residents. It also shows that organizational commitment and training is also essential for the desired outcome of these elderly patients.
Verhülsdonk, Sandra & Sabine Engel. (2012) Effects of Depressive Syndromes on the Everyday Competence of Nursing Home Residents with Dementia. GeroPsych, 25 (2), 103–109.
Dementia patients commonly suffer from depression and it has a significant effect on the functional impairment of nursing-home residents. The article provides study results from 138 residents in regards to depression, cognitive status, depression diagnosis, functional status, and status of medication. The purpose of this article is to show the affects of depression and dementia on an individual’s ability to function. It also lays the groundwork for a need of improvement in primary care in nursing homes. There is not enough attention or knowledge in many nurses cases to adequately care for the increased needs of these patients. The depression affects the overall competence of these elderly patients and additional training for the nurses is mandatory. Ideally, all professional groups should plan and coordinate a goal to develop a strategy together for treatment and implement it to provide the best care possible for the residents.