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Diabetes in the United States, Research Paper Example

Pages: 4

Words: 1048

Research Paper

Introduction

Diabetes is a challenging condition impacting approximately 1.6 million individuals in the United States, half of whom are 20 years of age (Birrer & Sedaghat, 2003). For people under 16 years of age, diabetes is the 3rd most common chronic condition. Long complications as an outcome of diabetes contain retinopathy (vision impairment), neuropathy (nerve damage), nephropathy (Kidney damage), and circulatory problems (Cox & Gonder-Fredrick, 1992). The medical cost of diabetes is incredible. In 2002, it was estimated that diabetes cost $132 billion in direct and indirect medical expenses (American Diabetes Association, 2003).

Anxiety, a symptom of stress, has been displayed to contribute to chronic metabolic difficulties in individuals with diabetes and can have profound impact on blood glucose control, particularly in teenagers with diabetes (Hogan, et. al., 2003). Increases in anxiety and anxiety levels may have completely different influence on individuals with diabetes; that is, stress and anxiety levels could cause hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia or have no impact on blood glucose levels. However, most individuals with diabetes have strong values that stress and anxiety adversely affect glucose control. However, anxiety is a usual occurrence when one activates in physical activity, and it occurs more commonly when participating in competitive athletic events. Therefore, diabetes may select not to participate in physical activity and in particular not in competitive sports in order to eliminate uncontrollable bouts of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, which would then negatively influence performance. Essentially, this avoidance behavior can lead to social separation, low self confidence, and loneliness.

The American Diabetes Association published clinical exercise details for diabetics, which have also been obtained by the American college of sports Medicine (American college of Sports Medicine, 2001). In addition to diet and exercise, psychological aspects also affect the metabolic control and the clinical management of diabetes. In particular, higher anxiety levels are connected with a lower metabolic control of blood glucose levels.

Purpose statement

The concern of this study was to determine the effects of 6 weeks of anxiety reduction techniques on somatic anxiety and on blood glucose control immediately prior to competition in adolescent athletes with diabetes.

Research Questions

The research questions investigated in this study include the following:

  1. Will participant in the anxiety reduction group have lower somatic anxiety levels prior to the post intervention competition than the control group?
  2. Will participants in the anxiety reduction group experience improved blood glucose control prior to the post intervention competition than the control group?
  3. Will the relaxation intervention related improvements in pre competition blood glucose control be mediated by intervention-related reductions in pre competition somatic anxiety levels?

Hypothesis

The hypothesis in the anxiety reduction group will have lower somatic anxiety levels at the post intervention assessment than the control group (Pamela, et. al, 2011).

Participants in the anxiety decrease group will have improved blood glucose control at the post intervention evaluation than the control group. The relaxation intervention associated improvements in post intervention blood glucose control will be mediated by intervention relevant reductions in post intervention somatic anxiety levels.

Conclusion

At this point, a majority of the research on diabetes, anxiety, and self managem3ent have been cross sectional. Skinner et al. (2000) indicated that larger and longer intervention studies are required to determine the role that cognitions and behaviors have on blood glucose control.

Annotated Bibliography

Birrer, R. B., & Sedaghat, V. D. (2003). Exercise and diabetes mellitus: Optimizing performance in patients who have diabetes. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 31 (5), 29-41

“Article focuses that diabetic patient should take part in sports or other recreational activities that physicians must provide pre participation clearance, education about blood glucose self-monitoring, exercise prescription, aggressive dietary and insulin management plans, identification of risk factors and potential complications, and ongoing education”.

Cox, D. J., & Gonder-Fredrick, L. (1992). Major developments in behavioral diabetes research. Journal Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 628-638

“Article presents the research on the behavioral diabetes which covers six areas like self treatment, diabetes-specific assessment, stress, and neuropsychological efforts. This program is very beneficial in identifying factors that predict self treatment behaviors”.

American Diabetes Assoication. (2003). Economic costs of diabetes in the U.S. in 2002. Diabetes Care, 26, 917-932.

“This paper addresses the economic costs of diabetes in the United States. It is the 5th major cause of death by this disease. The main cause of this study is to estimate the direct medical and indirect productivity costs”.

Skinner, T. C.; Hampson, S. E., (2001), Personal models of diabetes in relation to self care , well being and glycerin control. Retrieved from EBSCOhost, Diabetes Care; May 20001; 24, 5; Proquest, pg. 828

“Personal models of diabetes have been shown to be proximal determinants of self care behavior in adults with diabetes, both cross section ally and prospectively. This study set out to test the predictive utility of this approach in adolescents with diabetes”.

American, D. A. (2005). Diabetes care at diabetes camps. Diabetes Care, 28(1), S50-2. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/223054291?accountid=35812

“The American Diabetes Association addresses diabetes management of children at a diabetes camp, which it had already outlined as the standards of care for people with diabetes or for children with diabetes in the school or day care setting”. Details of the topics covered therein, including medical staff composition and staff training, treatment of diabetes-related emergencies, and written camp management plan, are presented.

Pamela, T. S.,B.Sc (Nurs), Hui-Chen, C., Taylor, Beverley Joan, PhD, MEd,R.N., R.M., & Hegney, Desley Gail, PhD, BA, DNE, COHN,C.N.N.N., R.N.,. (2011). The experience of hypoglycaemia and strategies used for its management by community-dwelling adults with diabetes mellitus: A systematic review [2011]. Adelaide, Australia, Adelaide: Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/900868412?accountid=35812

Hypoglycaemia, a common complication of diabetes drug therapy, has been reported to influence therapy adherence and the quality of life of people with diabetes mellitus. No systematic reviews on the experience of hypoglycaemia have been undertaken. The extant literature has taken a medical model perspective focusing on the causes, prevalence, and impact of hypoglycaemia.

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, suppl. American Diabetes Association: Clinical (Jan 2005): S4-S36.

This article presented the standard of diabetes medical care. American Diabetes Association focus is on providing clinicians, patients, and other people that need diabetes care, treatment. It also evaluates the quality of care.

Hogan, P., Dall, T., & Nikolov, P. (2003). Economic costs of diabetes in the U.S. in 2002. Diabetes Care, 26(3), 917-32. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220168461?accountid=3581

In the U.S. diabetes plays a leading role that causes death. Diabetic people have high risk of heart attack, blindness, kidney failure, extremity amputations, and other chronic conditions.

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