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Diabetes in Urban Societies, Annotated Bibliography Example

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Annotated Bibliography

Cuomo, A. “Urban Agenda: The New New York Agenda” DIANE Publishing, 2011: 139-141.

The book covers several approaches related to reducing diabetes and tackling disparities of health care within the urban society. The author finds that while diabetes cases in New York since 1994 doubled, the ethnic minorities of the city are disproportionally represented. The author looks at approaches the government is implementing, such as school-based healthy living education and promotion of exercise. These evaluations of intervention in New York will provide useful information for the current study.

Delgado, M. “Social Justice and the Urban Obesity Crisis: Implications for Social Work”. Columbia University Press. 2013. Chapter 9.

The author talks about health promotion in urban societies, the spread of diabetes as an epidemic and the social factors contributing towards the development of the disease. According to the author, African Americans are the most “at-risk” population in urban setting. The book tries to make a logical connection between social, ethnic status, obesity and diabetes among adults and children.

Burlier, L. “Diabetes and Health Disparities: Community-Based Approaches for Racial and Ethnic Populations” Springer Publishing Company. 2009.

In this book, the author evaluates community intervention programs in urban society in order to target at-risk racial and ethnic populations. The author confirms that one’s ethnic background can result in complete segregation from the rest of the society, therefore, information and choices are less available for these groups. In urban setting, the author quotes research that confirms that there is a close correlation between education and health outcomes. Poverty and the lack of insurance also contributes towards differences in access to health care and preventive programs. Environmental and social factors are considered by the book in relation with obesity and Type 2 diabetes.

Horton, C., Thompson, J., Flores, C. “Evolution of a Diabetes Quality Improvement Program at an Urban Community Health Center” Bridges to Excellence. Clinical Diabetes. Vol. 26. No. 3: 128-129. 2008.

The authors evaluate the San Francisco Bay -based La Clinica de la Raza health center’s approaches to support Spanish-speaking population. The article reviews the different implementation stages of the health education and intervention program, providing a complete framework for professionals. The prevention-based approach indeed created positive results and patient outcomes, therefore, it is important to understand the strengths of the framework for further public policy intervention planning to prevent diabetes among disadvantaged minority groups.

Jenum, A., Holme, I., Graff-Iversen, I., Birkeland, K. “Ethnicity and sex are strong determinants of diabetes in an urban Western society: implications for prevention”. Diabetologia (2005) 48: 435–439

The above research is investigating the prevalence of diabetes in different subgroups of the society in order to determine the most at-risk populations. The research was conducted in Oslo, based on a cross-sectional survey among 30-67 year old people. The results showed that South Asian population was significantly at a higher risk than Western groups’ members. The authors also found a reverse effect of education on the risk of diabetes and high BMI. The findings of the study show that there is a close connection between ethnicity, sex roles, norms, social status and the prevalence of diabetes.

Kolling, M., Winkley, K., von Deden, M. “’For someone who’s rich, it’s not a problem’. Insights from Tanzania on diabetes health-seeking and medical pluralism among Dar es Salaam’s urban poor” Kolling et al. Globalization and Health 2010, 6:8 Biomed Central.

The article focuses on the diabetes management access of low-income urban population. While the research was conducted in Tanzania, the general trends of inequality between poor and rich are global, therefore, the results of the study should be included in the current research. The study found that poverty and lack of financial sources affect health-seeking behavior among low income population in the developing world. Indeed, many patients were opting for ethnomedicine for financial reasons; their cost was much lower than medical treatment’s.

The Economist Intelligence Unit. “The silent epidemic. An economic study of diabetes in developed and developing countries” A report from the Economist Intelligence Unit Sponsored by Novo Nordisk. 2007.

The authors of the study are investigating the reasons behind the global rise of diabetes epidemic. Quoting Guy Barnett, the authors set forward a direction for policymakers and healthcare professionals, stating that “we have to adopt public health measures to make the environment less obesogenic, including everything from nutrition education to making it easier to walk in cities.”. Further, the article looks at the barriers of change closer. Education, the lack of understanding the condition, cultural taboos are among the barriers the authors reveal and investigate in the study.

The Academy of Medical Sciences and The Royal Society of Edinburgh. “Diabetes and obesity: getting to the heart of the matter”. Symposium Paper 2011.

The symposium report discusses the connection between urban lifestyles and obesity, and the impact of high BMI on risks associated with Type 2 Diabetes. Further, the study reveals marked differences of trends between various socioeconomic groups in the United Kingdom. While the authors state that the reason behind inequalities are not known, they suggest that a higher socioeconomic status would indicate higher adherence to professional advice and more health-conscious behavior.

Cha, E., Umiperrez, G., Kim, K., Bello, M., Dunbar, S. “Characteristics of American Young Adults With Increased Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study The Diabetes Educator. Vol. 39. No. 4: 455-463

The study looks at the characteristics of young adults who are at risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Indeed, the study revealed that a strong scientific evidence exists that implicates close relationship between lifestyle choices and obesity, as well as diabetes. Therefore, the suggestion of the research concludes that young women should be determined as a prioritized age group to focus diabetes prevention programs around. Support should be provided to help this group balance energy intake and expenditure to prevent obesity and diabetes.

S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Effective Public Health Strategies to Prevent and Control Diabetes. A Compendium” 2013.

Reviewing different community health programs, the authors of the study attempt to set forward preventive and disease control frameworks that have been proven to be effective in the past. Evaluating self-management, preventive, education and support services across the United States, the authors come to the conclusion that core intervention programs introduced in public schools and community centers are proven to produce positive long-term outcomes. Further, the study suggests that there is a need for improving clinical care across high risk populations and providing access to self-management education, tools and support.

De Silva, P., De Silva, S., De Silva, S., Liyange, K., Rajapakse, L., Jaysinghe, K., Katulanda, P., Wijerante, C., Wijerante, S. “Social, cultural and economical determinants of diabetes mellitus in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka: a cross sectional descriptive study” International Journal for Equity in Health 2012, 11:76

The study concluded in Sri Lanka provided further proof that urban population is at a higher risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes than those in rural or plantation areas. However, interestingly, the authors found that the higher percentile of affluence indicated higher risk of diabetes in this developing country. This would also imply that the patterns of disease increase is different in developing countries, especially in Asia than in the Western civilization. Plantation workers were significantly less likely to suffer from glucose intolerance.

Chelbowy, D., Hood, S., LaJoie, S. “Facilitators and Barriers to Self-management of Type 2 Diabetes Among Urban African American Adults: Focus Group Findings” The Diabetes Educator 2010 36: 897-905

The study looked at ethnicity-specific barriers of self-management among African Americans. The study found that peer and family support greatly influenced patients’ adherence behaviors. Further, lack of knowledge resulted in fear of glucose monitoring and lack of control over diets resulted in poor self-management. The study has revealed that this particular group needed extra community support to manage their condition.

Kaufman, F. “Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Young Adults: A ‘New Epidemic’” Clinical Diabetes. Vol. 20. Number 4, 2002.

The study focuses on prevention methods and approaches to target children and young adults focusing preventive and community health education programs around them. The recommendations suggests that school involvement and community organizations’ support to help families find safe locations for exercise should also be increased alongside with health programs’ intervention among children and young adults. Nutrition counseling is another method highlighted in the brief.

Rashad, H. “Promoting global action on the social determinants” Diabetes Voice. September 2006. Vol. 51. issue 3.

The article calls for advocacy that results in lasting change around the world. International health organizations need to be involved in making policies that result in better long-term health outcomes for populations in North America, as well as in developing countries in Africa.

Bhojani, U., Mishra, A., Amruthavalli, S., Devadasan, N., Kolsteren, P., De Henauw, S., Criel, B.  “Promoting global action on the social determinants” Glob Health Action 2013, 6: 22258

The article reveals that the success of either approaches is based on close collaboration between health care professional services and community programs. The authors call for a coordinated effort to prevent the disease while educating diabetes patients about self-management. Some of the barriers that the study revealed was financial hardship and low priority of disease management on the individual level. The study also revealed that gender roles influenced health related behavior, as well as family structures.

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