Differentiating Reading for High School Students, Annotated Bibliography Example

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Annotated Bibliography

Introduction

Differentiating reading is a concept that allows for tailoring of reading by students to meet their needs. It involves the provision of differing content, materials, processes, and the learning environment. The concept focuses on the attainment of an effective learning process. Differentiated reading uses various strategies in the attainment of this goal.

Anderson, K. M. & Algozzine, B. (2007), Tips for Teaching: Differentiating Instruction to Include All Students. Educational research information center (ERIC).

There is the misconception that it is not realistic for teachers to differentiate instructions to students to meet all their needs while in the mean time sticking to the regulations. However, this article looks into differentiated instructions while putting into consideration the critical factors of differentiation and starting differentiation. The authors further provide that differentiation alone cannot be used to meet the accountability and the standards of performance for both marginal students and those students at risk. Therefore, the authors propose a combination of differentiation, responsive education programs and continuous assessment of students to achieve this goal. These activities focus on the remediation and interventions for struggling students and identified as the best substitute for, effective and attentive response to learners.

Beasley, K.  R. (2010). An Analysis of Specialized Reading Instruction in High School EnglishClasses for Students with Disabilities Included in General Education. Educational research information center (ERIC).

This paper looks into the instructional strategies adopted by teachers in high schools while teaching the concepts of reading to students with disabilities. The preference of a large number of students with disabilities who receive education in inclusive environments plays a vital role. They do this in order to gain greater access to the provided educational curricula necessitates the need for differentiated instructions. The authors provide that the success of students and the educational expectations achieved with differentiated instructions. The study, therefore, focuses on the planning, implementation and assessment of students on the adoption of differentiation of high school students in English classes. The results implied that the use of teams and both general and special instructors collaboratively provide for students including those with disabilities.

Foorman, B. R & Petscher, Y. (2010). Development of Spelling and Differential Relations to Text Reading in Grades 3-12. Educational research information center (ERIC).

The author asserts that utility in spelling in the study result from data from 875,000 students. These students engaged in reading comprehensions, word analysis, and maze. The article lays emphasis on the importance of instructions in spelling ability. This concept supported by the role of demographics to the class levels in contrast to the level of the student. The role of high ability spelling classrooms in comparison to low ability spelling has a direct connection to comprehension and differentiated reading. In conclusion, thereof the authors suggest the incorporation of differentiated spelling classes with an aim of engaging students to read for understanding.

Access Center. (2004). Differentiated Instruction for Reading. Reading rockets. Washington D.C.

The article introduces and sets out the meaning of differentiation. The author then goes ahead to provide methods of implementing differentiation and sets out a detailed and logical process involved in differentiation. The author provides for the use of diagnostic assessments to gauge the preparedness of the students. Determining the interests of the students and the identification of styles and preferred environment of the students must be taken into consideration. The author lays emphasis on the importance of using varied differentiation strategies in the attainment of the desired goals. The strategies explored by the author include tiered assignments, compacting, interest groups, choice boards, learning contracts, and flexible grouping. The strategies provided by the author have the potential of assisting students in various skills ranging from comprehension, story prediction, word prediction, and phonics.

Rebecca, A. (2011). Defining Differentiated Instruction. Edutopia.

The article provides an explanation of what differentiation is and puts into context this issue. The author emphasizes that the approach taken by differentiation at equal education. She further asserts that equal education does not necessarily imply the same education for all students. She denotes that approaching all the students in the same style does not yield the desired results. Approaching the learning process from the level of each student provides a more comprehensive approach to the learning process. The author provides for the initiation of the process with the students’ background in order to get a superior appreciation of the requirements of the approach adopted. The author then provides a practical and idealistic example to support this argument. The author further articulates the importance of fairness in the whole process. The concept of fairness taking the form of providing more time to complete the tasks assigned and giving the students shorter assignments in regard to their abilities.

Nicole, S., (2012).  Thematic Differentiation for High School Literacy. Using thematic lessons to make the arduous task of differentiating instruction easier. Scholastic.

In this article, the author provides that thematic teaching is of a greater benefit to the students. This assertion supported by the fact that thematic teaching provides students with an increased interest in the learning process and allows them to relate between ideas and concepts. Thematic teaching according to the author also provides for connections between situations in the lives of the students, as well as the topics, learned in school. Nicole then states that the use of differentiated thematic instructions based on the reading levels of the students plays a crucial role. Categorizing the texts int6o categories helps to actualize this concept by providing different levels of text in accordance with the abilities of the students. Concerning thematic differentiation, it becomes essential to put into consideration the experiences, general interests and the age of the students.

Lexile. (2012). Lexile Measures Help High School Differentiate Instruction, Prepare Students for Success in Life. Lexile.

The article provides that it is difficult to differentiate instructions at the high school level and as such, teachers face many challenges and have to struggle to attain this. The provision of appropriate content to the students is not a simple task, and the article provides a framework to facilitate the process. The framework connects the learners with educational tools and reading materials while using the concept called Lexile. This concept made popular by the measurement of both the text difficulty and the reading ability. This approach allows the interested individuals in finding the appropriate content in relation to their developmental scale. This concept of Lexile measures instructional information as well as accessibility with the effort of attaining a balanced success in the educational set up.

June, P. (2006). Strategies that differentiate instruction. Black Hills Special Services Cooperative.

The author provides for the basics of differentiation, which include the strategies adopted in the implementation of differentiation. The author then looks into the content of differentiation its process and the end results of the process. The article places emphasis on the knowledge, understanding the requirement of differentiation of instructions. The concept gets support from the steps that facilitate the process. The application of tiers also addressed by the article and it provides for its necessity as the students are challenged on their abilities. The authors further provide for menus, which assist students in the making decisions and the concept of cubing which facilitates critical thinking. The essential concept discussed in the article is that of differentiation with regard to technology.

Steven, K. (2005). Differentiating Instruction in High School and Middle School.

The author points out that not all students require equal education despite their similarity in age. He notes that it becomes necessary to incorporate the concept of differentiation in this regard to provide a level ground for all students. The requirement before engaging in differentiation according to the author is prior assessment. He points out that pre- assessment provides an understanding of the requirements of the students. This idea helps categorize the students according to their educational abilities and requirements. It is also essential to manage differentiation as management leads to the desired results.

Shari, B. (2006). Differentiating Instruction In a Multi-Tier Comprehensive Reading Program Differentiating Instruction In a Multi-Tier Comprehensive Reading Program.

The author puts forward a three-tier model adopted for differentiated reading. The model consists of the students who are struggling and face a severe reading problem, those with a slight deficiency in reading and can show adequate progress with some intervention and those who have are low risk and require modest support. The author provides that students need initial instructions as well as supplementary instructions in order to achieve the desired goals. The identification of the areas that require intervention and identification of the urgency of the intervention is also crucial. The author also points out at the necessity of grouping in the use of differentiation to attain a successful learning process.

Reference list

Access Center. (2004). Differentiated Instruction for Reading. Reading rockets. Washington D.C.

Anderson, K. M. & Algozzine, B. (2007), Tips for Teaching: Differentiating Instruction to Include All Students. Educational research information center (ERIC).

Beasley, K.  R. (2010). An Analysis of Specialized Reading Instruction in High School English Classes for Students with Disabilities Included in General Education. Educational research information center (ERIC).

Foorman, B. R & Petscher, Y. (2010). Development of Spelling and Differential Relations to Text Reading in Grades 3-12. Educational research information center (ERIC).

June, P. (2006). Strategies that differentiate instruction. Black Hills Special Services Cooperative.

Lexile. (2012). Lexile Measures Help High School Differentiate Instruction, Prepare Students for Success in Life. Lexile.

Nicole, S. (2012).  Thematic Differentiation for High School Literacy. Using thematic lessons to make the arduous task of differentiating instruction easier. Scholastic.

Rebecca, A. (2011). Defining Differentiated Instruction. Edutopia.

Shari, B. (2006). Differentiating Instruction In a Multi-Tier Comprehensive Reading Program Differentiating Instruction In a Multi-Tier Comprehensive Reading Program.

Steven, K. (2005). Differentiating Instruction in High School and Middle School.

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