Discussion on Black Holes, Essay Example
Introduction to Black Holes
Black holes are a relatively interesting phenomenon in astronomy since they present one of the main concerns to untrained and illiterate minds that wonder, “could a Black Hole destroy Earth?” (Wild, 2018). However, scientists find Black holes fascinating for several reasons; one being their potential as Dark Matter. According to NASA (2018), a black hole is a region in space where the force of gravity is so strong such that light cannot escape it. The force of gravity in this region of space is strong due to the matter being pulled into a small space due to a dying star. A black hole is ideally invisible since no light can escape, but scientists study them by observing the behavior of adjacent stars using space telescopes. Due to the strong gravity that pulls the light towards the center of the black hole, scientists study stars orbiting black holes since when stars and black holes are nearby, high energy light is emitted, which telescopes can visualize. According to Curiel (2019), the definition of a black hole has been challenging to most people despite its implications for practical and foundational reasons. In the 60s, several scholars such as Hawking, Carter, Geroch, and Penrose introduced general relativity theory that set the foundation for black holes. These early scholars, such as Penrose, Hawking, and Geroch, introduced black holes as n event horizon through the singularity theorem. At the same time, Israel and Carter described it through the No-Hair theorems (Curiel, 2019). Various fields of physics and astronomy such as astrophysics, mathematical relativity, classical relativity, quantum gravidity, and analog gravity define black holes from core characteristics. These characteristics are a region of no escape, event horizon, apparent horizon, singularity, region of no escape for a finite time, and thermodynamically system of maximal entropy (Curiel, 2019).
A black hole is effectively defined and identified from a general relativity standpoint. According to Mabkhout (2020), a black hole is an object in space with a higher escape velocity beyond the speed of light. The current understanding of black holes takes account of Newtonian equations employed to calculate the black hole radius. However, Schwarzschild used a condition of marginal escape to develop a black hole’s initial radius. Moreover, Schwarzschild, just weeks after newtons general relativity, came up with a formula for the gravitational field used in understanding spherical symmetrical mass. And provide the simplest equation for black holes. Considering Einstein’s definitions of gravity is hinged on the curvature of spacetime, and in the event of a black hole, the center of its curvature extends into infinity. Mabkhout (2020) enforces that black holes are merely gravitational properties and, as such, lack matter; therefore, going by Einstein relativity implies that the density of matter in these regions is zero. After Einstein’s general relativity theory, Schwarzschild formulated the spherically symmetrical mass of an existing spacetime exterior of a star (Kunz, 2019). The solution also provides a good approximation of our solar system’s spacetime.
Further provides the simplest black hole type through a static spherical symmetric mass. According to Kunz (2019), they are astrophysical objects and represent beautiful mathematical objects. Moreover, black holes that appear at the center of galaxies are called stellar black holes.
Visualization of Black Holes
Researchers continuously attempt to visualize the invisible in the macro world, such as outer space, through geographic information systems. According to Giere’s reasoning model, it’s possible to visualize black holes through real-world observation data and theory (Yoon et al., 2020).
Black Hole Visualization through Theory
Scientists for a long time predicted and visualized how black holes would look like through theories such as rotating black holes according to Kerr solution, a non-rotation black hole through Schwarzschild solution, the flux of radiation, and equation on temperature near the black hole. Close to black holes are accretion discs from which the forces of gravity bend light emitted, and the scientists view it along the void geodesics (Yoon et al., 2020). Initially, theoretical black hole visualization stemmed from how black holes distort wider light sources such as stars are the end of the black hole. Consistent with Kerr’s solution assertions, when a black hole is located in the form of a light source, a shadow region appears and has a larger angular view than the black hole itself. The shadow region shifts its shape from the black hole’s spin from circular to D-shaped.
Nonetheless, scientists discovered that the black hole lacked an accretion disk in the milky way or starfield due to the gravitational distortion (Yoon et al., 2020). As an observer views the black hole, light emitted from the accretion disk can be visualized through two paths depending on the observer’s position. The first image reaches the observer as a primary image when the observer is above the disk since the light passes through the top of the black hole. Alternatively, when the light passes through the bottom, it reaches the observer as a secondary image. Luminet used the accretion disk to visualize black holes using Schwarzschild assumptions that the black hole is non-rotating. Later, he would use the Page and Throne equation to determine radiation flux that appeared as a contour graph as a redshift effect. First, he visualized a black hole by drawing it on paper using a pen since no computer program technology at the time for visualization was non-existent (Yoon et al., 2020). Later, the black hole was visualized theoretically using double negative gravitational renderer (DNGR) and general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD).
Black Hole visualization using Actual Observation
Black holes exist very far from the earth and require sufficient technical capacity to visualize. Visualizing some of the common suspected black holes such as Sgr A or M87 in their angles requires a concave or convex lens of about 4 km and visible light of 400nm. Considering the current optical telescope under constriction is 25.4 m, it’s impossible to view visible light. Initially, black hole visualization was achieved by looking at its periphery through limited resolution. As radio wavelength decreased, the resolution for radio telescopes increased through combining multiple telescopes (Yoon et al., 2020). One of the common black holes, M87, was visualized in 1951 using radio telescopes with 80MHZ and 214 MHz wavelengths. Later the various contour lines indicating sections of M87 were visualized with temperature aid. Finally, the observation of the M87 was produced by VLA, and the image was transformed using the CLEAN algorithm.
More recently, advancement on actual visualization was improved in the EHT project. Through calculations and observations of M87 from the earth, the black hole was at a 19-38 μas angle. The EHT project comprises eight networked radio telescopes around six regions of the earth (Yoon et al., 2020). To observe the planet, the scientists used ultraprecision hydrogen atom clocks to integrate the data from different telescopes with high developed image algorithms that store and record systems at an ultrahigh-speed.
Significance of Black holes
Scientists generally confer that black holes are a source of dark matter. According to Carr & Kuhnel (2020), primordial black holes provide some elementary particles of dark matter. While studies on PBH are inconclusive, there is a great potential for PBH to explain and be the source of dark matter and provide seeds of SMBH in galactic nuclei. Moreover, if PBH has an intermediate-mass range, they could process a monochromatic mass function. Moreover, García-Bellido et al. (2022) have primordial black holes that are the source of dark matter and a common origin for asymmetry Baryons. The CP-violating process produces BAU, and further assumptions demonstrate that high-energy physics can create baryon asymmetry through first-order transitions or out-of-equilibrium particle decays. In addition, gravitational failure of inhomogeneities would create baryon asymmetry and dark matter at the quark-hadron epoch. Since we understand that primordial black holes produce dark matter, we can investigate its significance to humans or the universe.
According to NASA (2021), dark matter forms about 27% of the universe, and the other 68% is dark energy. Scientists initially observed through the Hubble Space Telescope that the universe was expanding slowly than early assumptions that due to gravitational force, the universe had stopped expanding and was shrinking. Scientists came up with a theory on cosmic acceleration due to dark energy. Like dark energy, dark matter is a property of space with amazing properties that are just being discovered. Dark matter is a property of space and conforms to the laws of physics. During expansion, the energy of space will come into existence and facilitate the faster expansion of space while the matter will increase and fill the void space.
Black Holes as Evidence of God’s Care
The nature of black holes seems to be the end of advanced life; however, additional scientific data show the opposite of this and reveal God’s caring nature. According to Ross (2021), as a black hole’s gravitational force pulls matter into its event horizon, studies show that it is translated to energy. The energy generated in the form of radiation seems detrimental to advanced life. Therefore, the inability of black holes to co-exist or sustain advanced life is a problem for Christians or their religions that believe that God plans to sustain life. However, Ross argues that the universe that can apply physics and has laws and mass can create black holes that would be survivable to advanced life, which is a sign of God’s care plan. As stars and other massive neutron stars are dying, leading to the formation of black holes, in the process, an element heavier than iron is formed. In addition, other eight r-process elements are formed thus could be useful for advanced life survival. In addition, despite the black hole producing deadly rations, our solar systems are safeguarded from the black hole radiation (Ross, 2021). In essence, the shielding of our solar system from radiations is evidenced enough that God has provided a unique location for the existence of advanced lifeforms. Therefore, christens and other groups can be affirmed that God is in existence and cares for his creations.
Carr, B., & Kühnel, F. (2020). Primordial black holes as dark matter: recent developments. Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science, 70, 355-394. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nucl-050520-125911
Curiel, E. (2019). The many definitions of a black hole. Nature Astronomy, 3(1), 27-34. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-018-0602-1
Mabkhout, S. A. (2020). What are Black Holes, and do they really exist? Thamar University
NASA. (2021, June 22). Dark energy, dark matter. Science Mission Directorate. https://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-is-dark-energy
Ross, H. (2021). Black Holes as Evidence of God’s Care. Religions, 12(3), 201. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12030201
Wild, F. (2018). What is a Black Hole? NASA. https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/nasa-knows/what-is-a-black-hole-k4.html
Yoon, H. G., Park, J., & Lee, I. (2020). Significance of Black Hole Visualization and Its Implication for Science Education Focusing on the Event Horizon Telescope Project. Universe, 6(5), 70. https://doi.org/10.3390/universe6050070
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