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Dwelling Design in Hot Climate, Annotated Bibliography Example

Pages: 1

Words: 1626

Annotated Bibliography

Abstract

Climate greatly affects dwelling design. Dwelling design and climate must create a harmonious combination, to give comfort and satisfaction to house occupants. This paper is an annotated bibliography of five case studies related to the topic of dwelling design in hot climate. The word combination “dwelling design in hot climate” was used to search case studies. Scholarly databases and Internet search engines were used to locate the most appropriate case study samples.

Keywords: dwelling, hot climate.

Citation: Marcincic, I., Ochoa, J.M. & Alpuche, M.G. (2011). Thermal strategies for economical dwellings in Warm Dry Climates in Mexico. In M. Bodart and A. Evrard (eds), Plea 2011: Architecture & Sustainable Development, Presses Univ. de Louvain, 571-576.

How located: Google Books; “dwelling design in how climate”.

Abstract: Housing design for low-income populations is one of the most challenging issues in Mexico. The city of Hermosillo, Mexico, is located in a hot and dry climatic area; nonetheless, many local dwellings are designed with no regard to local climate conditions. The results of previous field studies show high levels of thermal discomfort and high electricity consumptions in Hermosillo. Federal regulations for dwelling design in hot areas are still in the draft stage. Thermal strategies are rarely applied in low-cost dwelling design. In this article, passive thermal strategies focused on cooling requirements are presented, based on the regional needs of low-cost populations in Mexico.

Findings: Low-cost dwelling design in hot climate is being influenced by a number of socioeconomic considerations. Price limits are the issue of the major engineering concern. Because low-cost populations do not have access to affordable mortgages, the quality of their dwellings is too low to be reasonable. Since low-cost owners in Hermosillo cannot afford artificial air conditioning, passive thermal design strategies hold a promise to enhance the quality of dwelling design in this climate area. Passive thermal design can also promote conscious and balanced use of energy resources used for cooling.

Setting and sample description: the study took place in Hermosillo, Mexico. Nine low-cost housing structures built between 2002 and 2005 were included in the sample.

Method: qualitative design was used to describe and evaluate the thermal characteristics of buildings in the sample and the thermal perceptions of the occupants.

Instruments: Two surveys were developed and used – one survey focused on describing the main physical characteristics of low-income dwellings (air temperature, globe temperature, wind speed and relative humidity), and another one was used to record inhabitants’ thermal sensations.

Analytic techniques: the ASHRAE scale.

Key references: Gomez-Azpeitia, G. et al. (2009). Comfort temperatures inside low-cost housing. Proc. 26th Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture PLEA 2009, Canada, pp.498-503.

Figures: N/A

Citation: Shawesh, A. (1993). The impact of hot-dry climate on housing: A comparative study between traditional and contemporary houses, with special reference to Ghadames City, Libya. Forum, 2, 42-46.

How located: Google Scholar, “dwelling design in hot climate”.

Abstract: Libyan Arab Jamahiriya is well-known for arid climate conditions. Traditional cities were created and developed in response to such conditions, with the help of traditional building techniques and natural materials. Unfortunately, modern dwelling design fails to provide and achieve similar comfort; mechanical and electrical devices are becoming an essential instrument of climate and comfort management. In this paper, modern and traditional dwelling areas in the desert settlement of Ghadames are described. The goal of the paper is to determine how external climate affects the performance of buildings and occupants’ comfort.

Summary of findings: Traditional houses were initially designed to protect their occupants from solar radiation and direct sunlight. By contrast, modern architects show little consideration to climatic conditions. Traditional houses are built in “a compact mass to provide shade” and protect occupants from wind and heat; they have heavy and thick external roofs and walls; the streets are narrow and shady most of the time; sky light, shaft wells, and limited openings guarantee that houses do not heat up quickly during the day. New settlements are not well adapted to the local climate conditions: houses are detached from one another; they have large unprotected glass windows; streets are wide and sunny; the use of electric air conditions creates more heat outside of the house.

Setting and sample description: The field study was carried out in Ghadames city, Libya in July and August 1991. The sample included six different houses in the new and old town. Case studies were chosen, based on their representativeness in the given area; the latter included the central, northern, and southern parts of the old and new town.

Method: The data were collected about the city’s macro-climate, the micro-climate of the buildings, and people’s response to climate conditions. The Meteorological station of Ghadames was the main source of the climatic data.

Instrument: survey

Analytic techniques: N/A

Citation: Haase, M. & Amato, A. (2006). Design considerations for double-skin facades in hot and humid climates. Envelope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency, II-5-1, 1-8.

How located: Google Scholar; “dwelling design in hot climate”.

Abstract: Office building facades present a serious engineering challenge. In this paper, thermal building simulations were integrated with nodal airflow network simulations, to calculate ventilated double-skin façade performance and energy consumption by office facades.

Summary of findings: Wall to window ratio influenced annual cooling loads on south facing facades. In case of solar control glazing, cooling load estimates ranged between 136 and 157kWh/sqm. Clear glazing was found to be the worst for all wall-to-window ratios, followed by solar control glazing. Double skin facades were better than all traditional window systems, with annual cooling load between 126 and 135 kWh/sqm. Savings of annual cooling loads reached 26.4%. The results have far-reaching implications for dwelling design in hot areas; the proposed energy-efficient systems can be readily used in modern dwelling design.

Method: A combined thermal and airflow simulation was created and used. TRNSYS and

TRNFLOW, as well as COMIS models were used, to simulate thermal behavior of an office room with double-faced facades.

Analytic technique: simulation models.

Key references: Balocco, C. (2002). A simple model to study ventilated facades energy performance. Energy and Buildings, 34(5), 469-475.

Garde-Bentaleb, F., Miranville, F., Boyer, H. & Depecker, P. (2002).

Bringing scientific knowledge from research to the professional fields: The case of the thermal and airflow design of buildings in tropical climates.

Energy and Buildings, 34(5), 511-521.

Citation: Zain, Z.M., Taib, M.N. & Bakim S.M. (2007). Hot and humid climate: Prospects for thermal comfort in residential building. Desalination, 209, 261-268.

How located: Google Scholar, “dwelling design in hot climate”.

Abstract: Humans have an ability to acclimatize and adapt to different climates. People always seek to achieve comfort in different climate conditions, and it is imperative that design strategies for residential building comply with the climate conditions in which the building is located. For the purpose of compliance to thermal comfort, intelligent systems can be used. In this paper the most common strategies to improve climate comfort of residential buildings in hot and humid climate zones are discussed. The goal of the paper is to delineate the main dwelling design strategies for hot rural zones in Malaysia, where the use of air conditioning should be minimized.

Summary of findings: Residents of hot countries like Malaysia will experience great discomfort if extra heat going into a building is not reduced. Air conditioning is both time- and energy-consuming, and not all Malaysians can afford installing air conditioning systems. Rural territories have little potential for using passive cooling, and natural ventilation does not help to achieve the desired level of thermal comfort. In urban territories, microclimate strategies in the areas surrounding the dwelling can improve thermal comfort.

Setting and sample description: the study was carried out in the urban and rural territories of Malaysia with hot and humid climate.

Method: Climate data and typical thermal behaviors of residential buildings were evaluated, to determine whether or not air conditioning was required to achieve thermal comfort. Malaysian climate scenario was developed to complete the study.

Analytic technique: description and statistical analysis.

Key references: Koray, U. (2002). Experimental and theoretical investigation of effects of wall’s thermophysical properties on time lag and decrement. Factor, Energy and Building, 34, 273-278.

Aynsley, R. (1999). Low energy architecture for humid tropical climates. Proceeding of the World Renewable Energy Congress, 333-339.

Figures: N/A

Citation: Luxmoore, D.A., Jayasinghe, M.T. & Mahendran, M. (2005). Mitigating temperature increases in high lot density sub-tropical residential developments. Energy and Buildings, 37, 1212-1224.

How located: Google Scholar, “dwelling design in hot climate”.

Abstract: Residential buildings using passive design have better chances to meet residents’ energy requirements. Passive design can even reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Residential designers face a serious challenge of global warming and heat island impacts. Future residential design must be resource efficient and mitigate the outdoor heat loads. In this article some design initiatives are proposed.

Summary of findings: 1. South east Queensland is facing the challenge of increased population and resource efficiency; for these reasons, new residential developments are of smaller lot sizes (less than 10 meters wide). 2. Closer housing and smaller residential lots, if oriented north-south, cause considerable energy savings. 3. Smaller lot sizes are invariably associated with increased housing density, creating heat island impacts; light colored surfaces and minimal hard paved areas hold the promise to mitigate heat island impacts. 4. Spreading trees increase shade vegetation and create cool micro climates. 5. If average temperatures continue to rise, houses with low energy rating will fail to provide thermal comfort.

Setting and sample description: the study was carried out in South East Queensland; the houses were located in a south facing block in the Springfield Lakes.

Method: qualitative descriptions of houses and suburban developments were provided; successful strategies to mitigate island heat were identified and applied to high lot density residential structures; computer simulations were used to predict the effects of increased temperatures on thermal comfort.

Analytic technique: DEROB-LTH software.

Key references: Nikolopoulou, M. & Steemers, K. (2003). Thermal comfort and psychological adaptation as a guide for designing urban spaces. Energy and Buildings, 35, 95-101.

Szokolay, S.V. (1991). Heating and cooling of buildings – Handbook of architectural technology. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

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