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Education Design for Adult Learners, Annotated Bibliography Example

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Annotated Bibliography

Albert, K. A., & Luzzo, D. (1999). The Role of Perceived Barriers in Career Development: A Social Cognitive Perspective. Journal of Counseling & Development, 77(4), 431.

Learning barriers can create distractions and reduce learning, as well as the overall effectiveness of the curriculum. Albert and Luzzo suggest that individuals self-efficacy, is a central element of a person’s thoughts about their own capabilities (1999). In many respects one of the leading barriers for many individuals is the fact that they under estimate their own abilities, because of past experiences or fear. This can be because of environment, contextual factors or other physical/social limitations, which need to be considered when preparing a curriculum. This article addresses perceived barriers such as an individual’s appraisal and response to lessons and factors involving learning new materials. Researching and understanding how individuals learn and perceive their own abilities can improve the overall outcome when considered in the planning process. Taking measures or precautions to ensure that the employees feel comfortable with their own power and abilities can improve the chances of success for the developed curriculum and overall company’s human resource training experiences.

Hean, S., Craddock, D., & O’Halloran, C. (2009). Learning theories and interprofessional education: a user’s guide. Learning in Health & Social Care, 8(4), 250-262.

The research of Hean, Craddock and O’Halloran examines contemporary learning theories and their impact on curriculum design (2009). The frame work and ways that learners respond to them is very important in maintaining not only “on level” lessons, but also appropriate course material. This journal article identifies Social Identity theory, which involves how learners identify and behave in particular learning settings. This is important when developing a curriculum because the human resource managers are a very specific group that has past experiences and learning that will factor into their ability to draw from the new training information. This article also addresses the situational factors that can play a role in the functioning of practice, programs and their overall success. Also addressed is Constructivism and Behaviorism in relation to practice, as well as their statistical results, which will help in the design of the curriculum project and identifying particular lessons or practices that would be best suited by a particular manner of learning. Because each individual has a different learning style and also burdened by other situational factors, the development must consider each aspect noted by the article.

Li-An, H., & Tsung-Hsien, K. (2009). Alternative Organisational Learning Therapy: An Empirical Case Study Using Behaviour and U Theory. Australian Educational Researcher, 36(3), 105-124.

This article discusses a theory referred to as the U theory, which represents a theory of deeper learning which was introduced in 2004. Li-An and Tsung-Hsien note that the theory of U involves interpersonal learning through seven capacities (2009). A few of these capacities are the  learners background, attitude, perceived subject norm, learning and perceived behavior control of a deeper learning process (Li-An & Tsung-Hsien, 2009). Factors of an individual’s ability to learn effectively are examined and the literature notes dependent and independent variables that have an impact on successful learning. The article details a study of adult workers at a manufacturing company and how their attitudes and behavior impacted their ability to learn and engage in their daily activities. The findings of the study suggested that self-efficacy was directly related to training effectiveness and learning performance (Li-An & Tsung-Hsien, 2009). The U theory and findings of this research will assist in determining appropriate objectives, learning outcomes and effective practices.

Muth, B. (2011). Integrating Social-Humanist and Cognitive Approaches to Adult Literacy. Adult Basic Education & Literacy Journal, 5(1), 26-37.

According to Muth, adults learn through both a Social-Humanist and Cognitive Stance (2011). The Social Humanist Stance suggests that individuals learn through evoking their own resources to move toward a more critical way of thinking. It involves both inquiries into the reasons for the information that is presented, as well as referenced social or cultural values. This is especially important when integrating past experiences or the teachings of others into a program. Muth also notes the Cognitive Stance of learning and explains that this theory measures learning based on “normative” approaches (2011). These approaches develop learning experiences on disciplinary skills and knowledge rather than placing an emphasis on the personal goals of the individual. The Cognitive model allows instruction to be “delivered by pre-established sequences of cognitive skills and competencies, with little learner generated content” (Muth, 2011). In contrast, the Social Humanist model of instruction is more centered on themes generated by learners themselves. This is important to the project as the curriculum will be based on the experiences of the learners, as well as new information. The differences between self-directed and instructor directed is important when developing the curriculum and role of the instructor during the workshop.

O’Neil, J. & Lamm, S.L. (2000). Working as a learning coach team in action learning. New Directions for Adult & Continuing Education, v. 87, p. 43-52

O’Neil and Lamm discuss some important theories of adult learning (2000). One of the most interesting in regards to the curriculum projects is the Action Learning. This theory suggests that classroom training is not as effective as those that are acting and learning through their environment (O’Neil & Lamm, 2000). They suggest that the most effective way that workers or learners can gain new information is in a more informal setting approached as real to life problems rather than text book learning or exercises. The emphasis is placed on small groups that gain experience through the reflection of a leader or coach and also a reflection of their own life experiences (O’Neil & Lamm, 2000). Drawing from this article the project can be built on a more realistic training that engages the experience and hands on participation of learners. This will assist in developing the trainer as more of a coach that has practical experience, rather than an instructor that teaches from a text book or strict sense of academic prepared work.

Quinney, K. L., Smith, S. D., & Galbraith, Q. (2010). Bridging the Gap: Self-Directed Staff Technology Training. Information Technology & Libraries, 29(4), 205-213.

Quinney, Smith and Galbraith discuss self-directed learning in this article, which is one of the foundations of the proposed curriculum project (2010). Motivations such as the desire to learn by the learner is addressed and the benefit of a learners assignment of value to the lesson that they are engaging in. This is important because it must be seen as beneficial to the employee or they will likely perceive it as a waste of their time and get little from the curriculum. This could also relate to other findings and sources as a barrier and attitude toward the information, which can hinder their learning ability or desire. Motivation is noted by the authors and related back to self-esteem, the desire for advancement in career status and job satisfaction, which is the purpose of the human resource skill development project. The ability to learn more about bridging the gap between self-directed learning and barriers is important to any learning method or practice. It can assist a curriculum developer with accurately planning lessons, practices and also implementing the instructor’s role in teaching or leading the group.

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