Evolutionary Psychology, Essay Example
- Describe and explain the mechanisms of both Natural & Sexual Selection as presented by Darwin, be specific about the relevant factors and how selection works.
Considering the principles of natural selection, Darwin explains it as the process by which particular features or characteristics that are assumed to be desirable are specifically chosen to be passed on to the next generation of species that are born to the said group of individuals [whether or not it may be applied on humans or animals]. At present, this process is most commonly known as selective breeding. Passing of the characteristics through being born from mutually connected partners [as parents] creates a relative indication of genetic transition that specifically comes from either the mother or the father. The mixture of characters of the parents into one specie or the offspring, is noted as the natural selection of features passed on to the next generation which becomes a remarkable identity of the said generation of species. According to Darwin, it is through the existence of natural selection that several generations take so much from their past ancestors hence they are identified accordingly with their parents from ancestral points of recognition.
On the other hand, sexual selection is defined as the manner by which individuals of opposite genders from specific specie are taken into account. The selection happens between the species themselves whereas they mate with individuals that they think have admirable and acceptable characteristics that they would want their offspring to inherit. At some point though, there are instances when the selection occurs as a sense of response to animal-instinct. The result of not being able to participate in this process is extinction, which means that those that were not able to mate and were not able to reproduce would soon be considered extinct in later years.
Both natural and sexual selection specifically creates a sense of distinction that allows species to be passed on from one specific era towards another. What makes the procedures essential for developing a specific population of species is that they both create a sense of promoting characteristics that would be identified as their recognizable traits in their future generations. These procedures shall also define whether or not a particular specie would be able to survive passing eras.
- Describe and explain what is meant by the term “Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness” and why it is an important consideration for modern psychological theories.
Promoted and developed by John Bowlby, EEA or Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness is noted as the manner by which a specific specie intends to adapt to its environment hence affecting its characteristics as well as its physical traits. In this case, the environment plays a great role on how specific specie comes out to be. Creating a sense of stability for the species to evolve in a particular location is identified by the capacity of the environment to sustain its needs. The identified capacity of the environment to sustain the needs of the species also creates a sense of mutual relation between the specie and the elements of the environment existing within the area.
Notably, Bowlby defines this procedure further through creating a line of existence between species as they intend to survive the challenge of time as it is able to ratify the condition by which specific individuals [from specific groups of creations] are able to manifest the characteristics of past generations. Relatively, the change of specific physical features in new generations actually manifests a sense of adjustment to the environment. This is the reason why it is written through historical data of human evolution that people who lived during the Pleistocene era were noted to have specific physical characteristics that cannot be seen in modern humans today due to the fact that their environment demanded that they have the said features. In a way, this suggests that as the environment changes, the species change alongside it to adapt to its capacity to provide sustenance to life allowing the said species to thrive and survive towards the next generation. It should also be noticed that not only does the environment affect the physical condition of the species but also that of their behavior towards each other and the local area that they are found to be residing in.
Behaviorism is one specific matter that is identified by evolutionists to define the reason behind the existence of certain species. The capability that each creature has when it comes to adapting to its environment and other creatures that roam around it specifically depends on its behavioral condition and how it specifically tries to survive the challenges that its current living condition presents it with. The survival of a creature towards the years beyond their current living condition depends on how they behave in relation to what their environment demands from them. The development of their thinking and the instinct that they are known for becomes the basis of the reason behind their survival.
- Explain what is meant, in so detail, by the term “Evolved Psychological Mechanisms” and why it is an important consideration for modern psychological theories. (Be sure to include a discussion of “computational processing”).
Following the condition of computational processing, the definition of the evolved psychological mechanisms specifically creates a distinctive condition by which a group of species is able to adjust to the situations that they are in. Notably, this means that the species also adjust psychologically to the conditions of living that they are subjected in. To present a specific example of this matter, a specific group of fishes might have a characteristic of survival such as that of the Anglerfish. Its current location for living also affects its psychological conditioning as it tries to retain its population-sustenance as it lives at the bottom part of the ocean where light may not be able to pass through extensively as in other parts.
Relative conditioning of the species’ thinking and behavior towards their environment and other living organisms around them is noted as the psychological manner by which these creatures adapt to the situation that they are expected to survive in. As mentioned, the primary desire is to survive. Hence, as a result of the EPM, the separation of preys versus the predators occur. For instance, the food chain is established as a sense of understanding how one would be able to survive from the situation that it is under especially relating to how other species behave. Food is a specific need that living things are strongly expected to give attention to. Hence, in line with the desire of surviving, animals tend to search for other animals and/or plants that could suffice their hunger as desired. The ways by which the preys behave against their predators then begin to develop as they hope to survive. In the same way, even the attitude towards mating to instinctively retain the number of their species in existence becomes specifically redefined.
Through the years of study, it has been realized that animals in the wild are able to adjust to the weather and the food availabilities due to the adaptation-based behavior that they develop through time. Knowing how their environment operates, these animals become aware of what particular food becomes available for them during specific seasons hence they tend to react accordingly towards such availabilities. The condition by which an animal responds to such needs is largely instinctive. Evolutionists believe that the establishment and development of a relative behavior that corresponds with a certain situation is a mark of a creature’s capacity to withstand the challenges that it environment presents it with as it tries to relate with other creatures living around it.
- Provide a general, but terminologically specific, overview of genetic expression. Include a discussion of how modern genetic theory advanced/augmented Darwin’s theory of evolution.
Genetic information is basically considered as the blueprint of a specific creature’s pattern of existence. The system that is evidently able to establish the being of a creature could be seen through its genetic pattern, which is interpreted as its genetic expression. It is known that each individual has its own genetic pattern, which is analyzed with its own unique genetic expression. No two creatures have the same exact pattern. This means that the only pattern that may be definite even in a family is a certain string of genetic identity. Nevertheless, complete uniqueness of genetic expression is a fact that cannot be denied when it comes to genetic science.
Through genetic expression, an organism’s phenotype is identified. This means that through these genetic strings, a person, a specie or a specific organism could be recognized alongside its family or the phenotype that it belongs to. It is also through this expression that the creation of new species with specific characteristics is determined in the field of biology today. Breeding of dogs, cats and other animals become strongly applicable when it comes to defining the genetic expression that identifies a specific breed. Once the genetic expression is analyzed and specific features of a specie have been considered to be acceptable and is desired to be reproduced on the coming generation, cross-breeding could then be applied.
In line with developing the claims of Darwin with regards the possibility behind the truth of evolution, it could be realized that this aspect of ge2netic science intends to create an extensive condition by which the species are further identified along with their families. Creating a specific line of evolutionary creatures, researchers today are trying to further their understanding of the matter. This means that the studies introduced for modern evolutionary recognition are based on the fact that genetic studies provide a concrete indication on the expressed characteristics of each specie based on their possible ancestors and the developments that they incurred through time. From this point, researchers are expecting to know how specific creatures where able to make extensive adjustments and adaptation in relation to the environment that they were found to be living in.
Lande, C.F. R. (1981). “Models of speciation by sexual selection on polygenic traits” (PDF). Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 78 (6): 3721–5.
Gould, Stephen Jay (2002). The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Harvard University Press.
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