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Immunology and Serology, Essay Example

Pages: 4

Words: 1237

Essay

Detailed Figure Analysis

Detailed Figure Analysis

Figure 1 (Savas, Haci Onder, Sukriye, Mehmet, Mehmet, Keskin, 2013).

Techniques used in the figure relates to a study conducted to evaluate the effects of steroids on subjects. Researchers applied randomization to select a sample of 64 subjects from a population of 69 who were eligible. Five were excluded. The research encompassed a study group and a controlled section.  Both groups were proportionately sampled with 32 subjects for each group initially. The research aimed at discovering the effectiveness of local tenoxicam injection versus corticosteroid therapy for the treatment of plantar fasciitis (Savas et.al, 2013).

Different parts of the figure show how many subjects remained in the study and how many left. For example, the third tier shows where one person dropped out leaving 31. From the control all remained throughout. Further, the second follow shows where one was lost from both the control and study sample. Therefore, the total number of subjects analyzed during the study was 31 study group and 31 controls (Lemont, Ammirati & Usen, 2003).

Measurements made pertained to ‘the tenoxicam group (n=31) being treated with a local injection of 1 mL of tenoxicam (20 mg/2 mL) and 1 mL of 2% lidocaine; the steroid group (n=30) was treated with a local 1-mL injection of 40 mg of methylprednisolone acetate and 1 mL of 2% lidocaine. A single injection was administered to both groups’ (Lemont et.al, 2003, p 234).  Subsequent measurements during the analysis included, mean, median, standard deviation; minimum and maximum responses. Also Levels of satisfaction were calculated based on the roles and Maudsley score. They were rated as excellent, good, fair and poor (Lemont, et.al, 2003).

The experimental and control groups those treated with tenoxicam and steroids. ‘The control group( tenoxicam group (was treated (n=31) with a local injection of 1 mL of tenoxicam (20 mg/2 mL) and 1 mL of 2% lidocaine while  the steroid group (n=30) was treated with a local 1-mL injection of 40 mg of methylprednisolone acetate and 1 mL of 2% lidocaine’ Lemont, et.al, 2003, p 234). Comparisons made related to how responsive subjects were to the treatments as they related to pain relief.

Main findings were described as from a total of 69 eligible patients and 5 being disqualified 64 began the analysis. These five patients were excluded because one of them had a history of being conservatively treated for calcaneal bone cyst; three demonstrated high C-reactive protein levels; and one patient was pregnancy. None of them decided to withdraw.  Three patient however became ineligible because they did not attend follow up therapy regularly (1 from tenoxicam control and 2 in the steroid experiment group), Consequently, 61 patients of the original patients completed the study. There was a dropout rate of approximately 4.7% (Figure 1). Researchers concluded that tenoxicam injection was not significantly more effective than the corticosteroid injection in treating plantar fasciitis. Effectiveness could have been derived when both techniques were applied. However it would appear that tenoxicam therapy offered more pain relief. However the long term effects could not have been evaluated from that study (Savas et.al, 2013).

Structured abstract

Background: The objective of this study was to explore the resistance of the virus in people who were supposed to be infected. Researchers contend that ever since in the 1980s when the AIDS was discovered as a disease along with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) people have become completely resistant to infection with HIV while others progressed at slower rates towards the development of AID AIDS. Consequently, this researcher has offered a summary of the mechanisms, which may be contributing to this the mechanisms (Auvert, Taljaard, Lagarde,  Sobngwi-Tambekou, Sitta, Puren, 2007).

As such, the focus of this scholarly presentation is on the function of immunological mechanisms, genetics, ethnicity and cultural practices that influence this seeming unusual response. One assumption raised in the analysis is whether male circumcision is an influential resistant factor. Presently, it is believed that if scientists understand this resistant factor in the spread of HIV/AIDS   more effective prevention strategies could be created in limiting spread of the infection as well as delayed onset of people already infected with the virus. The current understanding on host natural resistance against HIV infection and progression to AIDS would potentially contribute to better prevention strategies, delayed onset of AIDS in people living with the infection (Al-Jabri, 2007).

Methods: – The researchers conducted a review of literature based on the premise that natural HIV/AIDS resistance could be considered from three distinct levels. First a resistance to becoming infected with the virus; next 2 a resistance towards progression of the disease after  being infected as demonstrated in people who do not progress over a long period of time. A Third category are persons who are resistance even after symptoms appear (CD4+<200). These are classified long term AIDS survivors.  After a thorough perusal of documents pertaining to the subject review the research presented detail current data on each phase of resistance. Additionally, deliberations regarding immune response function mechanisms are also explored as it pertains to the three levels of resistance being demonstrated presently (Al-Jabri, 2007).

Findings: –  Evidence  derived from this literature review indicates that there is natural resistance to HIV infection as well as the progression towards AIDS. Unfortunately, current literature has no evidence based knowledge regarding exact mechanisms resistance are not yet completely elucidated. Future research may reveal the exact mechanisms through which this resistance occurs. Long-term non-progression, along with a strong resistance to viral infections is another scientific marvel (Al-Jabri, 2007).

Significance: – In identifying immunological mechanism involved in persons’ resistance to the HIV infection progression and symptoms would help medical science determine more effective preventative strategies.

Additional sources:

CDC Classification system for human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus infections. Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep. 1986;35:334–339.

CDC Revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance of definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep. 1993;41:17.

Cloyd MW, Moore BE. Spectrum of biological properties of Human Immunodeficiency virus HIV-1) isolates. Virology. 1990;174:103–116.

Detels R, Liu Z, Hennessy K, Kan J, Visscher BR, Taylor JM, et al. Resistance to HIV-1 infection. Multicenter AIDS cohort study. J AIDS. 1994;7:1263–1269.

Paxton WA, Martin SR, Tse D, O’Brien TR, Skurnick J, Vandevanter NL, et al. Relative resistance to HIV-1 infection of CD4 lymphocytes from persons who remain uninfected despite multiple high-risk sexual exposures. Nature Med. 1996;2:412–417.

Rowland-Jones S, Sutton J, Ariyoshi K, Dong T, Gotch F, McAdam S, et al. HIV-specific cytotoxic T-cells in HIV-exposed but uninfected Gambian women. Nature Med. 1995;1:59–64.

Rutherford GW, Lifson AR, Hessol NA, Darrow WW, O’Malley PM, Buchbinder SP, et al. Course of HIV-1 infection in a cohort of homosexual and bisexual men: an 11 year follow up study. BMJ. 1990;301:1183–1188

Works cited

Al-Jabri Ali A. Mechanisms of Host Resistance Against HIV Infection and Progression to AIDS. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 7(2) 2007:82-96. Print

Auvert B, Taljaard D, Lagarde E, Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Sitta R, Puren A. Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 Trial. PLoS Med. 2005;2:e298.Print

Lemont H, Ammirati, K; Usen N. Plantar fasciitis: a degenerative process (fasciosis) without inflammation. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc.  93(3): 2003; 234–237. Print

Savas Guner ;Haci Onder; Sukriye Ilkay Guner; Mehmet Fethi Ceylan;Mehmet Ata Gökalp;

Siddik Keskin. The effectiveness of local tenoxicam injection versus Corticosteroid injections for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Orthopedics Volume 36 (10)·10: 2013; e1322-e1326.Print

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