International Human Smuggling, Annotated Bibliography Example

Chardy, A. (2013, June 19). Coast Guard: South Florida relatives fueling Haitian migrant smuggling. Miami Herald [Miami].

This news story examines the phenomenon of migrant smuggling from Haiti to Puerto Rico. According to the author, this trend is fueled by relatives and friends of the migrants who live in the U.S.; these U.S. relatives are funding the trafficking in hopes that their relatives in Hait will find a better life in Puerto Rico. Unscrupulous smugglers often pocket the payments withour providing any services or offer unsafe and dangerous modes of transport.

Global Migration Group (GMG) – Migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons. (n.d.). Retrieved August 15, 2013, from

The Global Migration Group is a non-profit NGO that seeks to reduce or eliminate human smuggling, with an emphasis on the smuggling of migrants and of women and children. This site provides and overview of the relevant issues and provides suggestions and recommendations to individuals and organizations seeking to combat the problem.

Kyle, D., & Koslowski, R. (2011). Global human smuggling: Comparative perspectives. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press.

This book examines the issue of human trafficking from a number of perspectives, including the complicity of states and governments in allowing, or even helping, smugglers to operate.

Migrant Smuggling Working Group – TC Beirne School of Law – The University of Queensland, Australia. (n.d.). Retrieved August 15, 2013, from

Noting that “migrant smuggling (colloquially referred to as ‘people smuggling’) has become a major political issue,” this site –supported and funded by the Univesrity of Queensland, Australia, examines the issues through the lens of the legal framework, and promotes legal and legislative efforts to combat migrant smuggling.

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) (n.d.). Human Smuggling. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from

ICE defines human smuggling as “the importation of people into a country via the deliberate evasion of immigration laws.” This site describes the various techniques that ICE uses to reduce human smuggling through direct intervention, legal action, and investigation.

UNDOC (2013, July 24). UNODC launches migrant smuggling data sharing system for state authorities. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from

This site announces the launch of a new database and information-sharing system developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNDOC), describing it as “an internet-based, secure system where state authorities can collect and share migrant smuggling data. The system is in support of the Bali Process, an inter-governmental dialogue on migrant smuggling and human trafficking covering mainly Asia and the Pacific.” According to United Nations resolutions, member nations of the UN are required to collect and share data on human smuggling; this database was developed to help make such processes easier and assure compliance among UN nations.