Japan immediately after the end of Second World War was destroyed. All the major cities except the city of Kyoto, the networks of transportation and the industries were damaged severely. A severe food shortage existed for number of years. Japan officially surrendered on 2nd September, by signing the document called the Japanese Surrender Instrument. Allied, who were American primarily, armed forces were established to manage the country, and “for approximately 80 months after the surrender in the year 1945, Japan was explicitly at the benevolence of the occupation army, its population was subject matter to the control of foreign military. (Staff, 1992)
The Japan occupation by the Powers of Allied took place in the August of 1945 and finished in the April of 1952 (Bix, 2001). At that time the General MacArthur was appointed as its first Supreme Commander. In fact the complete operation was primarily initiated by the United States of America.
Japan, after the attacks, mostly lost all the land obtained after 1894. Moreover, the Islands of Kurile were conquered by the Soviet Union, and the Okinawa, including Ryukyu Islands, were taken by the United States of America. Okinawa had been returned to the Japan in the year of 1972; nonetheless, a territorial and defensive clash with Russia relating to the Islands of Kurile has not been come to a decision yet. (Bix, 2001)
The leftovers of war in Japan machine were shattered, and the trials of war crime were occurred. More than five hundred officers in military performed the suicide exactly after the surrender of Japan, and number of other were sentenced for committing the crimes of war.
The powers that emperor has before starting the war lost immediately after the passing of new legislation that come into effect in the year of 1947. Widespread suffrage was initiated and rights of human were assured. Japan was also prohibited to ever direct a war next time or to establish the army. In addition to this, state and the Shinto were clearly separated.
The commander MacArthur also deliberated to crumble the concentrations of power by ending the zaibatsu corporation and other big business and through the educational decentralization of the police and the education system. In the reform of land, attentions in the ownership of land were removed. Particularly, in the initial half of occupation, the media of Japan was related to a strict restriction of any statement of anti-Americans and topics of controversial nature for instance the issue of race.
The association among the Allied and the Japanese powers performed in smooth situation relatively. Critics of this taken steps to develop when the Americans worked progressively more in accordance to her considerations in the Cold War, again introduced the harassment of those people who were communists, positioned more forces in the Japan, and required Japan to set up personal self-defense troops in spite of the article of anti-war nature in the legislation (Goodman & Refsing, 1992). Numbers of viewpoints regarding occupation were called “reverse course” and greeted by the Japanese politicians of conservative nature.
With the treaty peace that came into operation into the year of 1952, the occupation came to the end. Self Defense Force of Japan was made in 1954, which came together with the huge demonstrations of public. At the end of Korean War the recovery of economic situation of Japan flourished. The growth of economy resulted in a rapid increase of living standards of people, development in society and the ruling position stabilization of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), even also in rigorous pollution. (Goodman & Refsing, 1992)
Staff, Asahi S. (1992). The Pacific rivals; a Japanese view of Japanese-American relations. New York: Weatherhill.
Bix, Herbert. (2001). Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. New York: Harper Perennial.
Goodman, Roger & Refsing, Kirsten. (1992). Ideology and Practice in Modern Japan. London: Routledge.