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Laboratory Experiment – Static Equilibrium, Lab Report Example

Pages: 3

Words: 779

Lab Report

Introduction

Static equilibrium is a condition which occurs when objects are at rest. The object is considered to be at rest when the sum of the net forces exerted total to zero. In the case of an object being at rest which possesses an axis, it may have the rotational tendency. This is reliant on the dissemination of force or mass. The rotational tendency is delineated as torque. The value of the torque forces must also be equivalent to zero in order to fulfill the conditions of static equilibrium.

ΣF= 0, ΣFT= 0

Force x Distance = Torque

Objective

The goal of the experiment had been to review the participation of forces and torque which react on objects that are in the condition of static equilibrium. The experiment had been achieved by means of three components. There had been a rigid object, which received support at one of the ends and served as a rotational axis. In the establishment of the model, the geometric center of gravity was ascertained regarding the rigid form. The goals were to determine the geometric center of gravity and to tabulate the values corresponding to the rotational torque at distinct points of the object.

Theory

Static equilibrium is referenced by objects at rest. These objects can be delineated by the following conditions:

  1. The total of the external forces is equivalent to zero
  2. The total of all of the rotational torques which was tabulated regarding the geometric center of gravity must be equivalent to zero.

(ΣF= 0, ΣFT= 0)

Procedure

An experimental force table was applied in the experiment. The table enabled the assessment of angles. The pulleys had been affixed to a table edge in order to facilitate a variety of hanging forces to be applied toward a geometric center of gravity. Three forces had been applied. The angular locations of the forces which were applied were equivalent. Initially there was fifty grams applied at 30° and one hundred grams applied at 150°. The central ring representing the center of gravity was affixed by a central post. A third and fourth weight had been applied in order to achieve a system of four forces in equilibrium.

Fig.1 Experiment One, Part One.

Fig. 2. Experiment One, Part Two.

Fig. 3: Experiment One, Part Three.

Fig. 4: Experiment Twob: Assessment of the moment of force.  The value of m = 100 g. The force exerted by mg = 0.100 kg x 9.803 m/s2 (sin 104°) = 0.951 N.

Loaded Mass(g) Loaded weight (N) Mass on Pulley ( ± 0.5 N) Proportion
200 1.9620 1.1 0.5097
150 1.4715 0.9 0.6116
100 0.9810 0.6 0.6116
50 0.4905 0.3 0.6116

Discussion

The distance is reliant on the pivot or the axis of rotation. An object cannot be detailed as being in equilibrium when it is subjected to one force. In the event that a force is being exerted on the object, the following equation applies:

ma = F

In the event of the object being in a condition of static equilibrium, it is inferring that the object is at rest. The total of the net forces that are being exerted on the object are equivalent to zero. This equation implies that the forces which are being exerted counteract each other. In any other circumstance, the object is not described as being in static equilibrium. Each object has a center of gravity located at its geometric center.

The assessed tendency of a force when exerted to engage an object in rotation is defined as torque. Torque can be referenced by the moment of force. The moment of force is a quantity that can be separated into its component vectors. The direction is significant corresponding to the rotational axis. In theory, in the event that the torques applied on an object causes the clockwise rotation, the force is evaluated as negative. In the event that the torque causes the object to engage in a counter clockwise rotation, the torque is referenced as positive.

In the second part of the experiment, the device had been configured as demonstrated in Fig. 4. There had been no pivotal point and the beam was liberally suspended. The right angles had been avoided and the maximum forces of the spring gauges were not attained. The angles of the calculation are also demonstrated in Fig. 4.

Conclusion

The ideas of the moment of force had been comprehended by means of the static equilibrium experiment that had been conducted. The laboratory experiment provided substantial insight regarding the tabulation of uncertainties, counterbalancing forces and static equilibrium. In the tables demonstrated in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the experimental values had been close. Part I enabled the estimation of gravity where it had been predicted that the ruler mark would be at the center. The discrepancies in the measurements are attributed to measurement error.

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