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Morbidly Obese Drug, Research Paper Example

Pages: 6

Words: 1539

Research Paper

This research paper is based on an analysis of different experimental designs while comparing and contrasting the strengths and weaknesses of the two different approaches to study a new drug which has been developed and it is believed to be effective in reducing appetite.

Independent group designs and repeated measures design

In the situation that independent groups design has been considered as the method of choice in a study, the occurrence of effects over experimental course cannot be avoided. The researcher may encounter effects on participants’ response which might be positive as the experiment begins and consequently becomes negative with course of time. Balancing in such case is achieved through running of participants to every experimental condition before considering another participant (Keppel, 1991). The order of running the conditions may also be altered, a procedure termed as randomized replications.

Repeated Measures Design

The Application of repeated measures in a research leads to the occurrence of some effects along the experimental course. The participant has exposure to a single level of experimental variable in the case of independent groups design while all levels are applicable in the case of applying repeated Measures Design. This consequently leads to some carryover effects in the response of the participant. Effects of this nature are unavoidable but can only be spread out uniformly, a procedure that is referred to as counterbalancing (Keppel, 1991).

Justification for the choice of experimental method

A better understanding of appropriate application of statistics in research is based on the competence of knowledge of the manner in which investigations are conducted by the researcher or the experimental design. Some basic understanding of applicable methodology is appropriate for attributing the statistics since they cannot be derived from nowhere. The research conducted is the one that generates the data. The available statistics serve the purpose of aiding in answering the research questions. This therefore means that a better knowledge of research design services as the basis to understand basic statistics better (Rubin & Earl, 2008).

Target population identification

For the sake of the study focus, a population is used in the study. Reasons for identifying the target population are varied. Firstly, the whole population cannot be targeted in a study. The use of a specifically targeted population is also used to represent the entire population since testing the entire population is not possible. Incase the entire population may be tested, then the possibility of an error is great as compared to the use of a target population in form of sampling. It is also problematic to consider the entire population in a research (Rubin & Earl, 2008).

A description and justification of a sampling plan

A population subset makes up a sample and any one of the members of a specific population may form part of the sample. During sample establishment, the observations and their collection should be a representation of variation in the process on the basis of independent variations. Ignoring autocorrelation along with the data with short term variability leads to a sample plan that is invalid both statistically as well as practically when size formula of traditional sample is applied. To arrive at the sample that is most appropriate, it becomes imperative to adequately consider the two elements. The risk associated with non compliance issues such as unsafe and ineffective product is also mitigated through documentation of underlying rationale

Ethical issues connected to the study

In the choice of a specific research design, some ethical requirements are considered to reduce the extent of harm or cause exploitation to the participants during the clinical trials. The researchers and their sponsors therefore have the responsibility over their participants and the most important ones are as follows:

  • The responsiveness of the researcher to health needs of the participants
  • The appropriateness of the study design in addressing the research questions
  • Existence of an effective treatment for a condition that is under focus during the research
  • The severity or life threatening nature of the intervention that is intended to be applied
  • The likelihood and extent of harm exposed to the participants in experimental as well as the control arms of the research
  • The likelihood and extent of benefits which may be derived by the participants in the course of the research
  • A balance between potential risks and benefits to participants and any other concerned party
  • Future availability of interventions of experiment to the participants and the entire community if the results indicate effectiveness after the trial.

It is imperative that all participants taking part in research are fully informed about the rationale of the research and the intentions of the researcher. This is commonly achieved by means of an introductory letter to the participants being surveyed. The letter is intended seek to solicit the cooperation of the participants during the study.

All research findings obtained are taken care of under highest levels of confidentiality and as a matter of ethics, none of the sources is supposed to be correlated with a particular observation, nor any comment is supposed to be associated without explicit permission from the source. All the information gathered during the interviews should be treated as confidential and every individual participant is given full rights of anonymity. All respondents should be treated with the highest degree of respect and esteem.

Expected results

The significance of choosing the most suitable sample size together with the most representative sample is evident in this scenario.  The two bears some significance although one of them is mostly underrated because the resulting sample becomes invalid statistically as well as practically (Sibbald & Martin, 1998). In case a significant difference is noted in the average scores of the groups which lacks a coherent explanation, then it is right to conclude that the difference resulted from the effects of treatment.

Threats to internal validity in the study

After determining the extent of inter-relationship of two variables, it becomes imperative to proceed to the determination of their causality. This entails identifying if A is the cause of B. The absence of internal validity in a study, it would be difficult arrive at the statements of cause and effect on the basis of the study and the study is only descriptive but lacks the causal element. Varied threats exist with regard to internal validity. A difference between pretest and the posttest is attributed to experimental treatment but it can also be attributed to issues such as historical events and weather changes among others (Sibbald & Martin, 1998).

Threats to external validity in research

External validity deals with issues which facilitates generalizability of study results to other persons, times and also places. It is therefore in order for the researcher to consider some questions in an attempt of identifying the possibility of any threat to external validity. These include the possibility of achieving similar results if a different sample is used, the possibility of similar results if the study is conducted in a different setting of the possibility of similar results if the study was conducted at a different time in the past or future. If the answer to the above questions is yes, then there is a great threat posed to external validity of the study (Danziger, 1990).

Any limitations to the conclusions that you can make

Limitations are usually present in every research and these limitations actually tarnish the results of the research. Certain limitations are also associated with this research. One of the biggest limitations of this research is lack of budget and lack of time. Besides that there are certain other limitations like the non-serious attitude of the respondents which might tamper the entire results of the research. The lack of time given by the respondents can also be another limitation of this research. If the respondents have lesser time than it is highly probable that they might not take the research properly and ultimately the final results of the research would be affected in this scenario. Therefore, the researcher should take utmost care about all these constraints and try to minimize it

Recommendations for future research on this topic

Future research on this topic is a requirement to identify the adverse effects that may be experienced by the patients from the regimes of their pretrial drugs. Switching to the use of a new drug, otherwise called sequential monotherapy or adding of a new drug, also called polytherapy is likely to minimize the adverse effects of pretrial drugs or an entire exacerbation (Danziger, 1990).  There is a need of evaluating the changes arising out of the frequency as well as the severity in negative effects allied to the strategy of treatment of each drug. This fact is based on the principle that the patients together with the patients crave towards the reduction of the negative effects coupled with the frequency of seizure. Consequently, this area calls for more research in as fat as this topic is concerned.

There is still a need for further research for the purpose of documenting the barriers correlation to delay coupled with the evaluation of effectiveness of overcoming the barriers using the interventions.

References

Danziger, K. (1990). Constructing the subject: Historical origins of psychological research.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Keppel, G. (1991). Design and analysis: a researcher’s handbook. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Rubin, A. & Earl, R. B., (2008). Research methods for social work. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks Cole.

Sibbald, B. & Martin, R., (1998). “Understanding controlled trials: Why are randomized controlled trials important”? British Medical Journal 316.7126: 201.

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