The individual in question is 40 years old, has been diagnosed with diabetes and requires a specific dietary regimen to keep his blood sugar levels as stable as possible The patient’s current diet includes a variety of fried foods and high fat choices, as well as processed foods that are very high in sugar. He is currently 75 pounds overweight and does not exercise regularly. He was diagnosed with diabetes over the past month and was sent to a nutritionist to develop a healthy eating plan and long-term strategy.
The chosen food plan is as follows:
|Day 1||Day 2||Day 3|
|Breakfast||2 egg whites with spinach||2 egg whites with tomatoes||1/2 cup steel cut oatmeal|
|1 slice whole wheat toast||1 slice whole wheat toast||1 packet stevia|
|1 cup decaf coffee||1 cup decaf coffee||1 large hard boiled egg|
|1 cup decaf coffee|
|Snack||1 medium banana||1 handful almonds (18 almonds)||1 handful almonds (18 almonds)|
|Lunch||2 cups romaine lettuce||2 cups spinach||2 cups green leaf lettuce|
|10 slices cucumber||10 slices cucumber||10 slices cucumber|
|6 cherry tomatoes||2 stalks celery||6 cherry tomatoes|
|2 tbsp. fat free balsamic vinagrette||2 tbsp. fat free ranch||2 tbsp. fat free balsamic vinagrette|
|Snack||1 handful almonds (18 almonds)||1 sugar free plain yogurt||1 banana|
|Dinner||5 oz. boneless, skinless chicken breast – baked||5 oz. tilapia, baked with seasoning||5 oz. salmon, baked with seasoning|
|1 1/2 cups broccoli with salt-free seasoning||1 1/2 cups cauliflower||1 1/2 cups spinach|
|Beverages||Water, iced tea||Water||Water, iced tea|
|1 dozen large eggs|
|1 loaf whole wheat bread|
|small bunch bananas|
|1 bag ground decaf coffee|
|bunch romaine lettuce|
|bunch green leaf lettuce|
|1 pkg cherry tomatoes|
|balsamic vinagrette dressing|
|1 can raw almonds|
|1 pkg boneless, skinless chicken breast|
|1 bunch broccoli|
|1 cauliflower head|
|1/2 lb. tilapia|
|1/2 lb. salmon|
|sugar free iced tea mix|
|1 bunch celery|
Breakdown and Nutrient and Dietary Needs
The client has been newly diagnosed with diabetes and requires a significant change in his dietary plan in order to accomplish the desired goals and objectives. His current BMI is 35.3, based on his height and weight, as shown in the table below. The BMI is calculated as follows:
(Weight) 260 lbs. x 704.5 = 183170
(Height squared) 72 x 72 = 5184
(Weight / height squared) 183170/5184 = 35.3
The Estimated Energy Requirement is as follows:
Formula: 662 – (61.9 x age) + PA x (15.91 x weight + 539.6 x height)
662 – (2476) + 1.11 x (4136.6 + 38851.2)
662 – 2476 + 1.11 x (42987.8)
662 – (2476 + 47716.45)
662 – (50192.46) = (-49530.46)
Formula: Based upon the website, the client should consume 7 servings of vegetables daily, 6 servings of whole grains, 2 servings of milk, and 2 servings of meat. The client requires many of the same foods as non-diabetics, including vegetables, dairy products, and whole grains and meat in moderation (American Diabetes Association, 2013). A healthy diet plan for an individual with diabetes requires an effective understanding of the challenges associated with maintaining optimal blood sugar levels as best as possible (Mayo Clinic, 2013).
Justification of Food Choices
Based upon the patient’s diabetic condition, it is important and necessary to develop a nutritional strategy that encompasses the use of different ideas and approaches to achieve proper nutrition and balance at all times. Therefore, it is necessary to utilize expert knowledge and resources in this manner to accomplish these objectives in an effective manner. One of the key areas to consider is protein, which must be sufficient in order to accommodate nutritional needs, but should not be excessive as it may lead to abnormalities in the kidneys (Harndy and Horton, 2011). Therefore, the inclusion of boneless, skinless chicken breast is essential to achieve the desired protein levels (Harndy and Horton, 2011).
With respect to vegetable intake, prior studies indicate that there are significant opportunities to achieve proper nutrition, including the consumption of antioxidants and flavonoids as found in a variety of vegetables, including tomatoes (Fulton et.al, 2012). In this context, it is important to consume these vegetables to improve the necessary vitamin intake, including Vitamin C and other important nutrients (Fulton et.al, 2012). Vegetables are a considerable source of nutrition in many forms and should be consumed as recommended in the example diet plan to improve nutrition and to promote weight loss and stable blood sugar levels as best as possible (Fulton et.al, 2012).
For diabetics, the implementation of medical nutrition therapy is of critical importance in improving nutrition for this population group (Morris and Wylie-Rosett, 2010). Assigning a registered dietitian (RD) to a diabetes patient may serve as an effective means of addressing his or her nutritional concerns to improve health and wellbeing (Morris and Wylie-Rosett, 2010). When medical experts are not involved in nutritional planning, there is a greater tendency to utilize the Internet to seek information, much of which may be conflicting in nature and may provide inappropriate guidance (Post and Mainous, 2010). In the example provided, it is necessary to provide the patient with much-needed professional dietary guidance to support the recommended nutrition plan (Post and Mainous, 2010).
Finally, the use of a variety of fruits, vegetables, and protein sources are essential contributors to preserving a patient’s health while facing diabetes. However, the example patient’s consumption of nuts may also provide an important means of stabilizing blood sugar levels over a period of time (Kendall et.al, 2010). The use of nuts as part of a healthy diet is likely to be an effective means of improving nutritional content and value, including improved glycemic response (Kendall et.al, 2010).
American Diabetes Association (2013). Making healthy food choices. Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/food/what-can-i-eat/making-healthy-food-choices.html
Fulton, S.L., McLaughlin, C., McCance, D.R., McKinley, M.C., Young, I.S., and Woodside, J.V. (2012). The effect of increased fruit and vegetable intake on diet profile in a diabetic population: fruit and vegetables in diabetes (FVD) study. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 71, E88.
Harndy, O., and Horton, E.S. (2011) Protein content in diabetes nutrition plan. Current Diabetes Reports, 11(2), 111-119.
Kendall, CWC, Esfahani, A., Truan, J., Srichaikul, K., and Jenkins, DJA (2010). Health benefits of nuts in prevention and management of diabetes. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 19(1), 110-116.
Mayo Clinic (2013). Diabetes diet: create your healthy-eating plan. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/diabetes-diet/DA00027
Morris, S.F., and Wylie-Rosett, J. (2010). Medical nutrition therapy: a key to diabetes management and prevention. Clinical Diabetes, 28(1), 12-18.
Post, R.E., and Mainous, A.G. (2010). The accuracy of nutrition information on the Internet for Type 2 Diabetes. JAMA Internal Medicine, 170(16), 1504-1506.