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Parenting: The Discipline Controversy Revisited, Essay Example

Pages: 4

Words: 999

Essay

Baumrind (1966) described a set of parenting styles. Briefly describe these parenting styles. On the basis of the different parenting styles, explain which one would be most effective in promoting success in later life.

According to Baumrind, four parenting styles exist; authoritative, authoritarian, permissive indulgent, and permissive uninvolved. Authoritative parents function as disciplinarians; establishing a clear set of expectations. Certain levels of discipline are imposed upon children with the intention of providing consequence for wrongful actions. Children are able to make their own decisions and learn from their own mistakes. Parents create a warm nurturing environment with mutual respect and kindness (SUO, 2015). The Authoritarian parent demands children adhere to their firm rules. If a child disobey, parents will disconnect emotionally; withholding their love and affection. Punishment involves verbal scolding and physical abuse. Permissive-Indulgent parenting style involves a consistent display of love and affection, leaving little room for discipline. Consequences are rarely carried out. The Permissive Uninvolved parent is completely disengaged; creating an environment without emotional connection and complete disregard for their child’s behavior and well-being.

The Authoritative parenting style would be most effective in promoting success later in life. To begin with, I believe success is measured in different ways. Depending on the person, success could mean financial security, career advancement, marriage, children, travel, health etc. Based on these various platforms for personal achievement, children raised with an authoritative parenting style would likely develop qualities that would give them the best opportunity for personal success. This parenting style creates an environment that is balanced. As a mother of two, my children were made aware of the rules and potential consequences. Punishment was not a surprise or a personal attack rather an assumed responsibility for their actions. This promoted an honest – upfront relationship in which love and affection were consistent. Allowing my children to learn from their mistakes created personal growth and responsibility. Qualities to be used in their future pursuits. This style of parenting enhances a child’s ability to create strong relationship; based on trust and love.

Parents purchase a number of items (until preschool) to help their children get a head start in education. Locate a few unique educational products on the market and probe their claims about helping children grow cognitively. Explain how the products may fit into Piaget’s stages of child development.

“LeapFrog,” has created a variety of products for all age groups that aim to stimulate senses and establish connections for cognitive development. According to Piaget’s theory, in the pre-operational stage of development, children are developing their language and establishing connections within their environment. “LeapFrog” provides children with colorful plastic shapes with a corresponding insertion table. At this age, children will likely use the process of trial and error in order to make the object fit. Eventually, they memorize each shape’s location. Logical reasoning is not understood by the child at this point (SUO, 2015). After the age of 7, children develop logic and reasoning. “LeapFrog” produces a tablet resembling a computer. During one exercise, the child will hear an animal noise, decide the type of animal producing the noise, and finally choose the animals’ environment type. An appropriate game for this stage of development; utilizing the process of reversibility where relationships between mental categories are formed (Santrock, 2012).

For his dissertation, Kohlberg (1958) conducted a study examining the moral development of children and adolescents. Briefly describe the levels and stages of moral development. Explain the major criticisms of Kohlberg’s moral stages, especially the work of Gilligan.

Kohlberg’s first stage of Pre-Conventional morality communicates that children make decisions based on expected consequences. A child will obey in order to avoid punishment. Conventional morality is based on the idea that we act a certain way so that others perceive us in that way. The observance of social order and the law also determines how one will act as the second component of the conventional morality stage. In the Post-Conventional morality stage, people understand the law looks to serve the masses and individual interests are not always considered (Kohlberg1958). The cultivation of these stages results in a personal set of moral guidelines which may or may not go against societal expectations. Kohlberg’s theory has been criticized for using only male participants in his research. Males tend to develop a moral compass that is based on justice instilled by the law. Women on the other hand, tend to operate on compassion and would likely be more considerate in decisions of morality. Results are perceived as gender biased with this argument (SUO, 2015). Additionally, responses from Kohlberg’s research were not based on real life situations where participants might have acted differently.

Gender stereotypes are prevalent throughout childhood, from toy cars to Barbie dolls. One influence on gender stereotypes is peer interaction. Explain the development of peer relationships and explain how peer interactions may influence gender stereotypes.

From an early age, children are unknowingly exposed to stimuli that enforce certain gender stereotypes. A girl is handed a Barbie doll to play with and develops a perceived understanding of how a girl should look, what she should drive, colors of preference etc. Similarly, boys are handed action figures that are strong, dominant, and never fearful. As products of our environment, we act in accordance with these perceptions. As a nurse, I have experienced stereotyping with regard to my profession. While nursing does require emotional generosity and caretaking abilities, it also requires a great deal of physical labor and bravery. This misconception has formed into a social construction where nursing is now deemed a woman’s job.

References

Baumrind, Diana. 1996. Parenting: The Discipline Controversy Revisited. Family Relations 45 (4): 405–414.

Gilligan, C. (1993). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Kohlberg, Lawrence. 1981. Essays on Moral Development: Vol. 1, The Philosophy of Moral Development. San Francisco: Harper and Row.

South University Online. (2015). Week 2: Late Childhood: Right and Wrong. In PSY2022: Onlinecourse.Retrieved from myeclassroom.com

South University Online. (2015). Week 1: Piaget’s Stage Theory. In PSY2022: Online course. Retrieved from myeclassroom.com

Santrock, J. (11/2012). Life-Span Development, 14th Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://digitalbookshelf.southuniversity.edu/#/books/0077733908/

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