There is currently a large-scale change in the healthcare trends; the transfer from the disease-centered to the patient-centered care is obvious, and the modern research is directed at the exploration of the most effective ways of ensuring adequate care to patients, with the proper consideration of their needs. The patient family centered care model is an innovative way to tackle the patient-related care issues; previously used exclusively for neonatal care, now the PFCC model is widely applied to the end-of-life care. The present annotated bibliography is dedicated to the analysis of issues connected with the application of PFCC, its preconditions, and barriers to its successful implementation.
Kovacs, P. J., Bellin, M. H., & Fauri, D. P. (2006). Family-Centered Care: A Resource for Social Work in End-of-Life and Palliative Care. Journal of Social Work in End-of-Life and Palliative Care, 2(1), pp. 13-27. doi:10.1300/J457v02n01_03.
The present article of Kovacs, Bellin, and Fauri (2006) is dedicated to the current theoretical and practical issues of introducing patient family centered care (PFCC) into the palliative care, and increasing the role of the patient’s family in the end-of-life care. Analyzing the recent statistics, the authors indicated that more than 75% of patients died in the hospital or hospice settings at the beginning of the 21st century, which indicated the family’s role as observers, and nor caregivers at the end-of-life period. The authors also noted the growth of interest towards PFCC due to the growth of palliative care in hospitals, and the proliferation of PFCC models in the modern healthcare.
Kovacs et al. (2006) defined key concepts connected with the PFCC model of end-of-life care, identified the theoretical foundations of PFCC implementation in practice, and determined the barriers currently existing on the way of introducing the PFCC model of care. The authors also discussed the ways in which the modern healthcare system can provide assistance to formal and informal caregivers. Finally, they explicitly showed the implications and value of the present healthcare trend for social work practice.
The value of the present article is in its synthetic nature; alongside with clear, detailed definitions of key terms connected with the PFCC model, the authors managed to outline the current state of affairs with introducing the model into everyday end-of-life care, and provided a feasible framework for overcoming barriers to change. The social work implications are also highly valuable for research dedicated to the introduction of change in a healthcare setting about the PFCC model. Clear understanding of theoretical and practical implications of the PFCC-related change is important for any change agent wishing to make the change permanent, comprehensive, logical, and well-planned.
Philibert, I., Patow, C., & Cichon, J. (2011). Incorporating patient- and family-centered care into resident education: approaches, benefits, and challenges. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, June 2011, pp. 272-278. DOI: 10.4300/JGME-03-02-34.
Philibert, Patow, and Cichon (2011) dedicated their article to the evidence-based, systematized discussions of the experience accredited programs and institutions have recently had with the practical application of PFCC models. The authors reviewed the results of the conference conducted by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), and identified the key issues related to the implementation of PFCC. Among such issues, principles of application, barriers to application, and simple strategies of overcoming barriers were considered. The framework for solution generation was designed with the help of two Ishikawa (Fishbone) diagrams for problem identification and solution generation.
Philibert et al. (2011) touched upon a very topical issue related to the PFCC implementation in the modern healthcare settings. The theory of PFCC is smooth and workable; however, the barriers with which stakeholders meet in practice usually have a serious mitigating effect on the solution’s effectiveness in a particular setting. Therefore, the focus on six fields in which barriers can be met (namely, culture, physical environment, people, time, other constraints, skills and capabilities, teaching and assessment) should be retained throughout the whole process of PFCC implementation (Philibert et al., 2011).
The present article is highly valuable for any PFCC-related research, since it outlines the key problems and issues that can emerge during PFCC model’s implementation. The strategies to overcome barriers are also discussed, which gives any researcher a clear, transparent guideline for the implementation of change. There is a clear conclusion about the impact of respectful communication on the outcomes of PFCC introduction, which is a serious factor for change agents to consider in both practical and theoretical sense.
O’Malley, P. J., Brown, K., & Krug, S. E. (2008). Patient- and family-centered care of children in the emergency department. Pediatrics, 122(2), pp. 511-521. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-1569.
The authors recognize the PFCC as an innovative care model that promises a range of advancements and improvements in the quality of care for children in the emergency department (ED). O’Malley, Brown, and Krug (2008) issued a technical report about the possible ways to improve the childcare in ED, and assessed the PFCC model as a viable alternative to currently existing practices. The authors insisted that the introduction of PFCC in the childcare in ED potentially offers a range of benefits and challenges. As a result of theoretical research and practical investigations of currently existing clinical practices, the author offered a range of solutions to facilitate the introduction of PFCC into ED childcare. They include optimizing the patient flow (with the introduction of the bedside registration system), security and identification system improvements, family presence, comfort care, improved interpretation services and communication, discharge planning and instructions, etc. (O’Malley et al., 2008).
The present article is highly valuable for PFCC research, since it offers a set of realistic recommendations regarding PFCC implementation in childcare in the ED settings. The research targeted at policy formulation and change implementation in real-life healthcare settings can advance greatly from drawing guidelines from the advice in the article of O’Malley et al. (2008). Since the recommendations provided by the authors rely on vast literary review and analysis of practice, the application of their observations into practice may be of critical importance in determining the success of the PFCC model implementation and policy coordination.
Davidson, J. E. (2009). Family-centered care: Meeting the needs of patients’ families and helping families adapt to critical illness. Critical Care Nurse, 29(3), pp. 28-35.
The article of Davidson (2009) is dedicated to the analysis of the need to ensure active involvement of family members in the process of healthcare provision to patients; the specific focus of the present article is on the services of the Intense Care Unit (ICU). The author of the article analyzes the real-life situation that led to a serious stress and grief of a woman who lost her husband due to the inappropriate amount of information about her husband’s conditions, cause of death, and other related medical issues. Drawing from that illustrative, highly emotional example, Davidson (2009) continues to prove the necessity of providing adequate information, and ensuring effective communication of family members with medical personnel in terms of a critical illness of their family members. The collective data gathered through a critical literature review indicates that family members of patients are highly dissatisfied with the amount of information, and the contents of communication they get from medical staff. ‘
The overall conclusion at which Davidson (2009) arrives is that the introduction of full-fledged patient-centered care is impossible without the active involvement of family members in the healthcare provision process. The present article represents a sound rationale for the introduction of PFCC into any healthcare setting, and the proliferation of PFCC-related research. In addition, the author’s experience as a nurse manager adds validity to the conclusions he makes. The overall value of this article for the PFCC-related research is considerably high, since it offers much empirical evidence from international sources justifying the necessity of healthcare policymakers to activate their PFCC efforts, and establish PFCC guidelines in all healthcare institutions.
Cooper, L. G., Gooding, J. S., Gallagher, J., Sternesky, L., Ledsky, R., & Berns, S. D. (2007). Impact of a family-centered care initiative on NICU care, staff, and families. Journal of Perinatology, 27, pp. 34-37.
The article of Cooper et al. (2007) is dedicated to the assessment of the success of family support sites in the neonatal intense care units (NICU). The authors conducted a quasi-experimental, post-only study by means of collecting data through telephone interviews and surveys in eight March of Dimes NICU Family Support sites. As a result of their survey, the authors acquired a possibility to conclude that the introduction of PFCC in the context of healthcare provided in NICU ensured the cultural change of the healthcare team, and ensured additional support to families (Cooper et al., 2007). In addition to support and cultural change, the PFCC provided stress reduction, increase of confidence, and higher volumes of information reported by respondents. The authors concluded about the overall increase of healthcare provision quality in NICU after the introduction of PFCC.
The conclusions made by the authors of the present article are highly illustrative of the practical value of the PFCC model’s implementation in any healthcare settings. The article deals with the traditional field of PFCC application – neonatal care. However, the article may also be helpful for making the rationale for end-of-life PFCC models, since the value of communication and information is assumed by family members of patients of all ages. Therefore, the empirical evidence of PFCC benefits for healthcare settings is highly valuable for PFCC research. The issue of cultural change, the value of stress reduction, and the increase of patient and patient’s family satisfaction indicate the value of PFCC in any healthcare settings; the interviews and surveys of patients and caregivers indicate the practical value of PFCC, and should be expanded, repeated, and used further for the PFCC-related research.
Brown, K., Mace, S. E., Dietrich, A. M., Knazik, S., & Schamban, N. E. (2008). Patient and family–centred care for pediatric patients in the emergency department. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, 10(1), pp. 38-43.
The research of Brown, Mace, Dietrich, Knazik, and Schamban (2008) was justified by an assumption that the overwhelming majority of parents of patients in the pediatric care units were actively interested in being involved in the care and decision-making processes related to their children. Therefore, the PFCC model in pediatric care is popular, needed, and widely applied nowadays. For the purpose of making the application more workable and successful, the authors conducted research on identifying the key processes associated with the implementation of PFCC in a healthcare institution, and the barriers, problems, and constraints with which medical staff can meet in the process of PFCC implementation and usage (Brown et al., 2008).
The authors insisted that in order to implement the PFCC model in pediatric care, the decision-makers have to evaluate families’ needs, develop a vision, mission, and philosophy of PFCC, evaluate policies and procedures for their congruency with the PFCC being introduced, develop staff competencies in PFCC-related issues, and provide the adequate atmosphere for children and their parents enabling them to participate in the PFCC model of care (Brown et al., 2008). The findings of the authors regarding PFCC implementation steps are highly valuable for PFCC research, since they provide a realistic, feasible framework for PFCC-related guidelines’ formulation. The process of implementing a new model of care is always lengthy; it involves the design of the project, implementation of cultural change, identifying and overcoming barriers, instilling the change, etc. Hence, the present article equips the researcher with two key points of PFCC implementation process: identification of implementation steps, and recognition as well as further removal of barriers. Among the barriers recognized by Brown et al. (2008), one should keep in mind the unavailability of family members who could provide support, the behavior of family members obstructing medical care, the limits of emergency room space unable to host family members, and the unavailability of an interpreter to translate the needs of non-English parents (Brown et al., 2008).
Radwin, L. E., Ananian, L., Cabral, H. J., Keeley, A., & Currier, P. F. (2011). Effects of a patient/family-centered practice change on the quality and cost of intensive care: research protocol. Journal of Advanced Nursing 67(1), pp. 215–224. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05448.x.
The article of Radwin et al. (2011) represents a research protocol about the planned research intended to measure the impact of PFCC on the quality, cost, and use of services for critically ill patients. The site chosen by researchers is a Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) in one of the urban medical centers of the USA. The protocol involves the two-group post-test design, in which one group of patients will be interviewed before the introduction of the PFCC change in the hospital, and the second group of patients will be interviewed about the implemented change they will have witnessed. The research is aimed to involve the teaching sessions for both Registered Nurses and physicians, and will involve patient//family meetings within 72 hours after the patients’ admission to the unit. Finally, the complementary data collection and management tool will be the formal documentation to support communication among clinicians.
As it comes from the present research protocol, there is much attention to the fruitfulness of PFCC implementation in healthcare settings. The present article may be highly helpful for the PFCC research, since it offers a set of feasible, realistic guidelines about the process of PFCC implementation, and provides the change agents with a transparent, simple toolkit to be used for the evaluation of PFCC effectiveness. As it comes from the assessment of the present article, it is a universal guide for those wishing to test the effectiveness of PFCC, and to present evidence to policymakers for the sake of accelerating and improving PFCC implementation.
Moretz, J. G. (2010). Strengthening patient- and family-centered care: learning through webinars. Pediatric Nursing, 36(3), pp. 168-170.
The article of Moretz (2010) is dedicated to the initiative of the Institute of Patient and Family Centered Care consisting in the organization of webinars to assist nurses and clinicians in the adaptation to the PFCC model in healthcare. The author emphasizes the need of PFCC model implementation, and discusses the adoption of PFCC in a wide range of institutions as a recognized practice. However, Moretz (2010) noted that there is a large gap between PFCC introduction in the healthcare settings, and the implementation of an effective collaborative framework that would allow nurses to search for new ways to partner with patients and their family members. The webinars offered by the Institute of PFCC are aimed at dropping the most common challenges and myths related to the implementation of an effective PFCC model. The topics of three webinars discussed by Moretz (2010) in her article include the involvement of the family in the composition of the change of shift report; contribution of family to the development of peer support programs, and the PFCC approach to transferring patients from ICUs to home.
There is no doubt that the present article represents extreme value for the PFCC research, since it outlines the training and coaching efforts undertaken by the Institute of PFCC for the sake of making the transition to the present model of care smoother and more constructive. In addition, the article of Moretz (2010) reaffirms the need for the PFCC model implementation in healthcare settings, which strengthens the research. Finally, the author emphasizes the need to include instructional support for nurses and clinicians, which is an essential part of the model’s implementation process.
Hudon, C., Fortin, M., Haggerty, J. L., Lambert, M., & Poitras, M.-E. (2011). Measuring patients’ perceptions of patient-centered care: A systematic review of tools for family medicine. Annals of Family Medicine, 9, pp. 155-164. doi:10.1370/afm.1226
The article of Hudon et al. (2011) is dedicated to a systematic literature review related to the identification of helpfulness of various instruments involved in PFCC-related measurements. The core measure addressed by the researchers is the patients’ perception of patient-centered care; the analysis of three databases (MedLine, Embase, and Cochrane) resulted in the identification of more than 3,000 articles mentioning some types of PFCC measurement tools. The comprehensive analysis of a portion of identified articles gives the authors an opportunity to identify two most widespread, and most effective measurement tools – the Patient Perception of Patient-Centeredness (PPPC) and Consultation Care Measure (CCM). The efficiency of both instruments, and some properties of secondary measurement instruments are analyzed in the article with the further provision of conclusions regarding their application in practice (Hudon et al., 2011).
The present article represents exceptional value for the PFCC research, since it provides the beginning researcher with the toolkit for measuring and analyzing the success of PFCC introduction in a certain healthcare setting. In addition to this focus, the article underlines the documented efficiency of PFCC in modern medical care. Finally, the author focuses primarily on the features of the PPPC and CCM tools, and summarizes their efficiency, adding that the CCM scale also has the brief overview of patient-doctor relationship, with adds comprehensiveness to this tool, making it a more efficient alternative to other existing tools for measuring the outcomes of PFCC implementation.
Mitchell, M., Chaboyer, W., & Foster, M. (2009). Positive effects of a nursing intervention on family-centered care in adult critical care. American Journal of Critical Care, 18, pp. 543-553. doi: 10.4037/ajcc2009226.
The article of Mitchell, Chaboyer, and Foster (2009) is dedicated to the survey of PFCC implementation outcomes in Australia. The survey was conducted by the researchers in two Australian hospitals, Princess Alexandra Hospital, and Gold Coast Hospital. The research was conducted with the division of hospitals into the control site and the intervention site; the respondents were questioned at the baseline and in 48 hours after hospital admission. According to the results of Mitchell et al. (2009), the PFCC model strongly improved respect, collaboration, and support, and showed the overall increase of the scores on patient care quality.
As it comes from the present article, the application of PFCC is approved of, and successfully implemented worldwide; the statistics on the US successes relating the PFCC implementation can be successfully complemented with the Australian and European statistics, which will obviously add value and significance to the PFCC-related research. Therefore, including such articles as the one of Mitchell et al. (2009) is significant for the overall justification of the research rationale; the successful experience of Australian colleagues in the field of PFCC may be used by the US specialists for the sake of improving patient care, patient outcomes, and patient satisfaction. In addition, the fact that the article about the PFCC implementation in Australia is published in the American Journal of Critical Care witnesses about the international focus on the issue of PFCC, and accepting the worldwide evidence of its success in the American scholarly research.
As one can see from the present annotated bibliography, there is much attention in theoretical and empirical research to the numerous aspects of PFCC implementation. The current research is mostly dedicated to the issues of implementing the PFCC model in healthcare settings, educating staff on the PFCC issues, and eliminating barriers to its full-scale use. The articles examined in the present annotated bibliography present a full image of the modern application of PFCC, and reveal the indisputable benefits of its usage.