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Personalities Theory, Case Study Example

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Case Study

Applied psychology is more helpful than using the theories behind experimental psychology, theorist, Professor Carl Jung.   He feels learning through experimentation and on hands learning technique is the best way for a person to get their goals accomplished. In doing so, Jung accomplished a study of six phases of personality theories that he is worldly renowned for that places him at the same level of honorary men such as Sigmund Freud.  The real knowledge of the world whether in a New York Stock Exchange, a prison cell or at a learned school are accomplished through learning by watching others. This was demonstrated through timeless efforts by Jung’s theories as will be explained in further detail throughout this case study.

“Sigmund Freud said that the goal of therapy was to make the unconscious conscious.” (Boeree, 2006).  Carl Jung certainly made his theories enhanced through the theories of explaining the exploration of ‘inner space’ and his life works. Though his theories differed from Freud’s they both complimented each other and they enhanced each other in various ways to bring the world of psychology to higher levels.

Jung used symbolism and traditions such as Hinduism and Buddhism whilst performing his studies and works.  Jung was notorious noted for his vision of a “monstrous flood” engulfing Europe and at the mountains of Switzerland during the time and rise of the infamous Adolph Hitler. Theories suggested these manifestations came from his very ludicrous dreams and occasional visions.

Jung practiced in the early 1900’s predominantly in Switzerland and was often thought of as almost ‘mad’. “He often recorded his dreams, fantasies and visions as well as sculpturing his thoughts and findings.  Carl Jung found this technique most rewarding and was noted very well in his place of psychology” (Boeree, 2006). Jung began a mission of self-exploration after World War II as his visions began to become more ludicrous in nature. Again, Jung was viewed as eccentric and questionable by his peers and the common public.  One of his cases was a subject of a wise old man and his companion, a little girl, which depicted a spiritual guru. This girl became known as “anima” one with a feminine soul. It was later learned this was a main medium of communication that Jung used as an inner consciousness for his theories he most believed in. These types of views were questions still even more questioned amongst his peers as he insisted his questionable studies. This gave rise to his sanity.

Jung personally involved himself using his ego as he was the shadow of a primitive companion for himself. He had morbid dreams of the dead very often. His practices lead him to believe the mentally ill were haunted by ghosts. He realized the danger and warned many people about the worship of the danger of heroism. Jung was very conscience of this aspect of his inner thoughts and respected the works of Sigmund Freud though they did not always share the same views.

He practiced in a small village in Switzerland and was born to very educated parents. He attended boarding school but was not very fond of school in general. He reflected back to his thoughts which showed in his work as far back as the age of six. Jung’s passion was to attend a school of Archaeology which set the platform for his desire of the theories of psychology.

“After graduating, he took a position at the Burghoeltzli Mental Hospital in Zurich under Eugene Bleuler, an expert on (and the namer of) schizophrenia. In 1903, he married Emma Rauschenbach. He also taught classes at the University of Zurich, had a private practice, and invented word association at this time!” (Boeree, 2006). His background showed he was a very intelligent man but he had not yet gained respect for his hard work. His notoriety was not yet developed or distinguished by his peers until the competition of the sixth phase of his work.

Freud and Jung were initially admirers of each other’s works. But Jung had never been entirely sold on Freud’s theory. Freud and Jung shared certain ideas on some theories of dreams but eventually their relationship came to a halt because Freud was afraid he would lose control over the situation. Jung travelled frequently to Asia and Africa after the death of his wife. His wife was an inspiration to his work but he never totally allowed her to become part of his work. These views lasted to her untimely death.

Jung wrote about Adolph Hitler’s rise to power in the year of 1932. “His article assumed a harsh, dismissive, and abusive tone. It’s grim conclusion was that Picasso’s art amounted to nothing more than a manifestation of mental illness.” (Fudjack, 1997). Over the years Picasso and Jung both accumulated thoughts that evolved into a biographical literature that culminated into a manuscript titled “Hegemony and the Harlequin: Jung, Picasso and the Unfulfilled Possibility of a Genuinely ‘Socio-Spiritual’ Psychology.” (Fudjack, 1997). The manuscript gave opinions of Picasso and Jung’s introverted feelings of a politically and socially astute world which was depicted through his artwork.

A large portion of Jung’s work consistently reflected back on his personal thoughts and dreams along with the era in which he lived. His approach to the personality theory were very definitive and still today he is still noted for his position in theories of psychology. His work is still known today as for being whole and fully complete to resolution. At a place and time the significance at which his work was particularly important, but now there seems to be much appreciation for the theories he produced. Jung’s theories have much increased in recent years due to the understanding of the way he thought and the ability of other psychologists to share and prove the same views. He is distinguished for his five and six phase theory of personality development. These theories matured over time and much effort through understanding and personal growth by Jung especially at stage four of the personality theory phase.

In phase one of his personality theory “in his doctoral thesis, Jung sought to explain the communications that a spiritual medium allegedly received from disembodied ‘spirits’ as the uttering’s of split-off ‘personalities’ residing in the unconscious of the medium herself.” (Fudjack, 1997). In Jung’s first theory of a total of six, he initially did not set out to “tender a personality theory” (Fudjack, 1997) rather he was at the primary stages of development of his findings. As he started in 1902, the development of the stages, he later professed five additional stages which took his works into year 1919. Jung’s life and work were precursor’s to his life as he developed his theories in more depth.

In phase two of his personality theory, Jung developed a system of two ways of thinking: symbolic and directed thinking in which consisted of a rational and an intuitive approach. This is known as the MBTI and the ST and NT approach of mental functioning. Symbolic thinking described the NT and ST or ‘intuitive’ thought pattern of loom to psychology. With this new way of thinking Jung had begun to “distinguish himself methodologically from Freud.” (Fudjack, 1997). This new theory began to distinguish how social dynamics intertwined with intrapersonal processes with real life instances which were beyond Sigmund Freud’s theories of personality studies. The thought of the individual psyche had begun to immerge as a different aspect in the world of psychology. As the years progressed, Jung published his doctoral thesis postulated on the theory of spiritual matters that would influence theoretical explorations “that would eventually result in his personality theory.” (Fudjack, 1997). Later in 1933, as years progressed from 1933 to 1979, Atwood and Stolorow spoke of Jung’s “attempt to eliminate the danger of inherent in relating to others. (Fudjack, 1997) in their published book Faces in a Cloud, Intersubjectivity in Personality Theory. Atwood and Stolorow’s theory of unconsciousness is based upon the withdrawal into extravagant isolation caused by insupportable feelings of loneliness.

In phase three of his personality theory, Jung described two mutually psychological types.  Jung described introverted thinking and intuition and extraversion or sensing as characteristic features. Introverted thinking was considered similar to Jung’s own way of thinking and common to his own personality. Jung spent much time on this theory since he gained personal satisfaction in this theory since it related to his own way of thinking.  The mental parameters and personality variables were not totally created as of yet at this stage of the personality theory. Not until 1913 did Jung finally break with Freud and articulate his own type of personality theory called I-N-T. Freud’s type was considered to be of an extroverted type called E-S-F whereas; Jung’s type was a combination of both, starting to emerge as individual types of personality theories to call its own. At this time Jung defines his work as at a developmental phase and unconscious levels of preparations for his “period of introverted exploration which took place during the years of 1913 to 1919.”

During phase four of Jung’s theory work he decided to leave the academics and relieve himself from extroverted psychology work. This change was very radical and was a defining point in Jung’s life as well as the study of personality theory psychology for Jung.  Psychologists’ posture this may be one of his lowest and weakest phases of his career in the six phase study. He developed an introverted intuition and has a conflict between the introverted world and introverted tuition. By the end of this phase he realized Jung realized he was ready to re-enter the real world. “By 1919 Jung had begun to think of EACH of the ‘four functions’ (T,F,S,N) as manifesting in two distinctly different forms – an ‘introverted’ form and an ‘extraverted’ form. Following this new development, we might (theoretically) think of persons as not only having individual preferences for using a SPECIFIC function, but also preferences with respect to using that function in either an extraverted or introverted fashion.” (Fudjack, 1997). By the end of this phase, Jung realized his theories had become those of manifestations other than works of what he had originally postured them to be which were vehemently directed as his own personality that of an extroverted type. Once again, Jung was beginning to methodologically disassociate his thoughts on psychology theories from his the renowned Sigmund Freud. It was at this time that Jung personally realized that his studies had led to what he called the ‘fruit of his labor’.

In phase five of Jung’s personality theory, Jung began to incorporate his students, MBTI practitioners and non-jungians into his studies. They began to use the first four theories of his studies into their work. These professionals were able to expand Jung’s theories into a 8 theory study and further it into a 16 theory study in the latter having its own defined types. Not until this time does Jung realize “’introverted intuitive’ thus separates into ‘introverted intuitive with auxiliary feeling’ and ‘introverted intuitive with auxiliary thinking.” (Fudjack, 1997). This theory was named the Jungian system. The new theory was based on the premise if a person’s primary function was introverted his secondary personality must be extroverted. The new Jungian rules disagreed with this theory. The theory agreed with self-centered postulation rather than separation of introversion and extroversion between the psyche or personality.

In phase six, the Jungian theory does however agree with a spiritual medium as a significant social function in a person’s social functioning in a group environment. There is a strong depiction of ‘spiritualism’ and ‘spirituality’ in this new phase and the old phases. Spirit is defined as a form of ‘energy’ in phase six of Jung’s theories. Six entertains the role of the ‘ego’ in spiritualism and the personality theory. The ego is very capable of reconstructing a person’s dynamics. In phase six it is at this point that the introverted or intuitive path is really begun to be understood. Jung begins to really feel that his work is accomplished and coming together as a whole.

In conclusion, Carl Jung’s work is still perceived to be a level of great accomplishment and is used in further studies of personality theory psychology. It is often compared to the works of Sigmund Freud although they differed in opinions at times on certain matters. Jung will always be remembered for his contributions to the Jungian theory as well as his contributions to the individual studies of personality theories. His accomplishments took place during a time during the uprising of the European theater of World War II which was one of the most horrifying eras in history known to mankind at that time. Still today his works are still viewed as being dominant to the study of individual personality trait psychology and his contributions will remain documented and acknowledge in psychology books and journals for years to come.

References

Boeree, George (2006) Personality Theories Retrieved March 4, 2010 from, http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/jung.html

Fudjack, John (1997) Six Phases in the Development of Jung’s Theory of Types Retrieved March 4, 2010 from, http://tap3x.net/EMBTI/j8sixphases.html

Hegemony, A. Third Principle Governing the Distribution of MBTI Type across the Enneagram New York: NY Patton Publishing, Inc, 1998

Evans, C. The Authoritarian Personality Type New York: Boardroom Classic Publishing, 1997

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