Pharmacologic and Parenteral Therapies, Essay Example
- What are the rights to medication administration?
Right dosage, right time, right patient, right route, right documentation,
- List the steps for administering medications via gastrointestinal tubes.
First verify type of medication check vital signs and make sure are within the normal limits, asses bowel sounds, abdominal distention, input and output. Check placement and residual confirm tube placement per facility policy (ph testing and aspiration of gastric content for residual.
- What is the difference between a mild allergic reaction and anaphylactic shock?
A mild allergic reaction is one that may manifest with infection or other symptoms; anapylactic shock, on the other hand, is quicker in onset and may result in more severe outcomes, including death. Typical symptoms may include an itchy rash, throat swelling, and low blood pressure.
- When a client is on antipsychotic medications what will the nurse monitor? What are the possible complications of antipsychotic medications? What client and family teaching should be done?
The nurse should monitor the individual’s general behavior as well as the basic medical condition. The client should be taught the worsening of a psychotic disorder; advise that these medication do not cause addiction; take medication on a regular schedule.
- Where do you give a subcutaneous injection of Insulin?
Insuline is given subcutaneous in the arm, abdomen and thigh. Insuline should be rotated weekly, and administered 45 to 90 degrees.
- List 2 reasons the elderly may be adversely affected by medications.
- Comorbidities- elderly individuals may have more than one condition, of which, the pharmalogical impact may directly or indirectly impact another condition.
- Increased sensitivity to drug effects among elderly due to changes in pharmacodynamics.
- What is the process for nurses administering a PRN order?
PRN orders are written as needed; in order to administer a PRN order properly, the nurse should only issue the prescription if the patient shows the symptoms and issues identified by the doctor; if the patient doesn’t show the symptoms with the order- the nurse should withhold giving the medication.
- What pertinent data should be reviewed before administering medications?
All data regarding the individual’s weight, the dosage of the medication, and what level of medication should be given.
- You need to give a 10 kg child Benadryl every 6 hours. The safe dose range for this medication is 5mg/kg/day in divided doses. You anticipate the dose to be___________mg.
10 kg child 4 times a day- approximately 1.25 mg
- The dose for DIPHENHYDRAMINE is 1.25 mg per kilogram. A child weighs 15 kg. How many mg will you give to this child? The medication provided is 12.5 mg in 5ml. How many mL do you give to this child per dose?
15*1.25= 18.75 mg
7.5 mL per dose
- What medications are often given when a client is withdrawing from alcohol?
The main treatment for a client that is withdrawing from alcohol is Benzodiazepines, B-blockers, clonidine and carbamazepine, phenothiazines.
- What should the nurse teach the client regarding taking SSRI medications?
The nurse should teach the client: To take the pill with food; take the medication every day; tell the client there is a time until the pill works and not to stop if they do not feel the effects.
- List adverse effects of antidepressants.
There are a number of adverse effects from antidepressants including: nausea; insomnia; anxiety; decreased sex drive; weight gain; tremors; and sweating.
- What are MAO Inhibitors?
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors is a class of pharmaceuticals given for depression, and in particular, atypical depression. Although still used for conditions where safe first-line therapy is not available, MAO Inhibitors stopped being used en masse due to a number of dangerous drug interactions.
- Your client is in heart failure and receiving Digoxin. What do you do prior to giving this medication? What are the signs of Digoxin toxicity that you will watch for? What electrolytes are important to monitor while this client is on this medication?
The nurse should monitor the apical pulse for 1 full minute before administering.
There are a number of signs of Digoxin toxicity that should be closely monitored: nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea, visual disturbances, arrhythmias. Potassium depletion and magnesium deficiency should be closely monitored.
- You are providing a medication that is known to be hepatotoxic. What signs and symptoms are you going to assess for to make sure this client is not experiencing adverse effects of this medication?
From a clinical standpoint, any individual on hepatoxic drugs should have their liver regularly monitored- that is, to monitor if there is an increase of liver enzymes in the blood. Other prominent adverse effects from hepatoxic drugs include: nausea; vomiting; abdominal pain; jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) and hepatomegaly.
- What precautions would you consider prior to giving a Benzodiazepine to a client?
Upon giving a Benzodiazepine one should advise the patient to avoid driving hazardous activities, alcohol and other depressant medications.
- Your client has been prescribed a corticosteroid for SLE. She is concerned as she has heard horrible things about these medications. What side effects do you explain to her so that she is prepared?
There are a number of potent side effects including: Cataracts; High blood sugar, which can trigger or worsen diabetes; Increased risk of infections; Loss of calcium from bones, which can lead to osteoporosis and fractures; Menstrual irregularities; Suppressed adrenal gland hormone production; Thin skin, easy bruising and slower wound healing.
- You are providing care to a client with type 1 diabetes. You administer his AC breakfast dose of regular insulin at 8:15. What time do you note that you should return to check on this client for S/S of hypoglycemia? What are the S/S of Hypoglycemia?
One should return at roughly four hours to deliver the S/S of hypoglycemia.
- Your client who just returned from the PACU is experiencing respiratory depression from her Morphine dose that she received just prior to leaving the OR. The physician at the bedside has ordered Narcan to be given. What is the expected client response?
The expected client response will be to go into “withdrawal” as Narcan essentially works to reverse the effects of the original drug.
- What is Kayexalate used to treat? How does it work? Any medication that you should not give while using Kayexalate to treat a client? How do you know this medication is having the desired effect?
Kayexalate is used to treat hyperkalemia (normal high blood serum potassium levels) , in which there is an excess of potassium and a lack of sodium.
In the large intestines, polystyrene sulfonates, potassium is exchanged for sodium or calcium ions. The indigestible polystryene sulfonate is then excreted with feces, preventing absorption of potassium in the blood stream.
Individuals should not take calcium or salt supplements with this drug. One knows it is working if one’s potassium level falls from the baseline level.
- Explain the complications of giving a laxative and what you monitor the client for once you administer these meds.
Depending on what condition the individual has a laxative will inevitably change the consistency and perhaps hardness of fecal matter.
Once laxatives are administered, one should look out for balances in electrolytes and monitor constipation in these patients.
- Why would you need to give a client an anticoagulant? What do you explain to them about the medication? What do you monitor?
Anticoagulants prevent blood clotting, and thus is typically used for individuals that suffer from myocardial infarction and venuous thrombosis. One should tell an individual taking anticoagulants they should avoid concurrent use of aspirin, which can also thin the blood.
- What are the side effects of Thrombolytics?
There are many potential side effects from using Thrombolytics: 1) potential internal bleeding; 2) fever; 3) allergic reaction; 4) cardiac arrythimias; 4) cholesterol embolus syndrome; 4) anaphylactoid reaction; 5) anaphyactoid reaction.
- Why do you administer an antitussive? What kind of clients would you question giving this medication to and why?
An antitussive (otherwise known as codeine) is given to individuals to suppress a non-productive (that is nothing is spit out) cough. This is given to individuals in pregnancy risk category c and individuals that are contraindicted in individuals with a history of asthma, renal failure, and alcoholism.
- What is the difference between a loop diuretic and a Thiazide diuretic? What are the side effects?
A loop diuretic blocks the reabsorption of sodium and calcium, in order to block the reabsorption of water by working on the Henle loop in the kidney. It is typically used in the treatment of certain heart conditions, kidney stones, pulmonary edema.
Thiazide diuretics work in a different area than the loop diuretic (distal convoluted tobule ). In addition, the primary condition associated with Thiazide diuretic use is for hypertension.
- When administering a bile-acid sequestrant, what diet interventions do you explain to the client?
Bile acid sequestrants usually interfere with food absorption of nutrients and other minerals during digestion. In order to offset the loss of absorption, guidelines recommend the gemfribozil 1hour before of 4 hours after taking bile acid sequestrants.
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