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# Reasoning & Analysis, Research Paper Example

Pages: 3

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Research Paper

Deductive Argument

This is one of the two methods of logic used to make a conclusion to be true considering the information. It can also be used, in research, to ascertain the hypothesis. According to Aquil Burney, deductive reasoning works from a more general to the specific perspective. Most people know it to be the top down approach. It derives the conclusion based on generalization that is using one or more premises that are true to reach a true conclusion. Deductive reasoning uses arguments based on the available laws, rules and principles that are acceptable. Deductive argument can be valid or invalid. Its validity is solely dependent of the argument having a valid, logical form.

Deductive reasoning has some elements in which one can easily identify.  A scientist in their researches mostly uses it because they start with simple statements and come up with complex scientific statements. Scientists also use it because most of their research cannot be observed directly, but the effect can be felt and observed. Deductive is branded by the existence of the subsequent words; If, Then, But and Therefore.  For example, All Americans are human, and all humans are mortal therefore, all Americans are mortal; this is a valid argument with a true conclusion. Another example is some ladies are Bus drivers (premise 1).  Some Bus drivers are Poor (Premise 2).  Some Ladies are Poor (conclusion). This is an invalid argument because it follows the logical fallacies pattern of reasoning, which common, in invalid argument.

For one to be able to evaluate deductive reasoning, first check the validity of the argument and also if it is a formal validity.  Check if conclusion actually follows from the premises, if the argument is invalid then it does not establish the conclusion and then conclusion can be rejected, the bases being the reasoning is not good and one of the premises is not true.

Inductive Argument

Inductive argument is scientist cannot use the opposite of deductive argument, this type of reasoning.   Inductive reasoning takes an idea from a specific point of view to a general point, which is against the principles of scientific method. Informally, it is known as bottom up approach, its conclusion is based on the premises, and it involves a degree of uncertainty. Inductive reasoning uses observations, experiences and not assumptions. It does not use the premises to come to a conclusion; this is because even if all premises are true the conclusion can still be false. It is also known as induction.

To be able to identify inductive argument, forms such as statistical syllogism are used for reasoning; this is making a general basis based on one particular issue. Inductive has some strong argument, and this is said to be rational; when the fact of the argument premises results in a probable true conclusion.  Inductive reasoning is more unrestricted and investigative especially at the start.  It takes four distinctive stages; these are observation, analysis, inference and confirmation. One will observe the facts, then analyze the facts by identifying the pattern, see the general relationship of the facts collected, lastly do the testing.

Inductive argument can be evaluated by considering the truth of the premise to be a reason enough to agree with the conclusion depending on the scale of probability. Inductive has two types of argument, either a strong or a weak inductive argument; a strong argument is where the premise is true, and the conclusion is most likely to be true. A weak inductive argument is when the conclusion is almost certainly not true. Evaluating inductive argument is very tricky, because one needs to sample size and the relevant of the premises. An example of inductive argument is, all your friends are good. One can be good, too. (Premise), the conclusion will be good.

Moral Principles

In deductive strategy, the moral principle is used to deduce the moral rightness, wrongness and neutrality of an action. All arguments in deductive strategy use a strict structure shown below; Premise 1 Moral principle, Premise 2 argues that the type of action is correctly depicted by the moral principle, conclusion, and judgment about the morality. The most significant character of deductive strategy is it appeals more to general actions or type of actions in which the principle is the moral guide. We use generality because with no moral principle will be hopeless as a guide, moral principle about a type of action can aid to conclude a less general type of action.

Inductive also known as argument by analogy, this is where two items are compared  by observation the relevant similarities and concluding that the other, which is not yet observed is similar to the other. They are commonly used to evaluate and analyze scientific researches, for example, research on animals. They can also be used to clarify uncertain cases to a clear case.   Evaluating this type of argument in an objective way: means having an argument, which meets the set standards of a strong argument to be the basis of the moral knowledge. Most of the analogy arguments are from the moral point of reasoning. According to Keith Allen Korcz “ We can conclude that the arguments by analogy we have constructed is a strong one, and it tells us that a creature need not have a human genetic code in order to have moral rights”.

References

Burney, S. & Nadeem, N. (2006). A brief history of Mathematical logic and Applications of logic in CS/IT; Karachi University Journal of Science vol. 3.

Feeney, A. & Heit, E. (2007). Inductive Reasoning: Experimental, Developmental, and Computational Approaches; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Inductive and Deductive Reasoning. StudyMode.com. Retrieved October 26, 2012, from <http://www.studymode.com/essays/Inductive-And-Deductive-Reasoning-502594.html>

Korcz, A. K. Moral Reasoning in Applied Ethics Retrieved on 25th October 2012 from <http://www.ucs.louisiana.edu/~kak7409/MoralReasoning.html>

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