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The Rise of Rome, Essay Example

Pages: 18

Words: 4991

Essay

In program number 9 of UCLA Professor Eugene Weber’s episode of The Western Tradition: The Rise of Rome, he notes that within 200 years Rome became master of all Italy and it. In 800 A.D. Charlemagne crowned himself Roman Emperor. He points out how Rome was ‘blessed by geography” by having grains and fruit. Rome started as a market town and a farm community. The virtues the Romans admired were all related to discipline and self discipline. They believed in gravitas the sober seriousness that marks a real man, even the word virtue means manliness. Woman were considered 5th class citizens barely above slaves. When babies were born, if they were not boys they were often left to die. Romulus and Remus were raised by a she-wolf their plight brought on the moral ideology that “serious things should not be taken lightly.” The Roman Empire was founded in the 6th century BC. The Roman army mirrored the value of society. Every soldier was responsible for their own weapons and armor, and if they did not show up to the enlistment with these tools they were not inducted into the army.  The attraction of the army stemmed from the spoils of war. Roman Legions proved to be so much more militant and disciplined in their training that they were able to conquer the bulk of what is now known as Italy. The wars with Carthage forced Rome to evolve into a naval power Hannibal was actually very tactful at defeating the Roman army, the problem was by the time he found himself at Rome’s gates, the ret of Carthage and surrounding areas refused to support his cause as the Romans had been very diplomatic and open engaging the other cultureAfter Rome defeated Carthage, it continued on to defeat other regions of Italy and expand.

Based Upon the Textbook

Roman Republic: The struggle of the orders

The struggle of the orders was not a war but more of a political conflict that occurred between citizens “By the fifth century b.c.e. social relations between patrician and commoner (plebeian) had deteriorated enough that a social revolution occurred, which historians have called the Struggle of the Orders (Sherman & Salisbury, 148).” The struggle, which some mistake for being a civil war, was not a civil war but a set of political reforms that the aristocracy was forced  to follow between 509 to 287 b.c.e. (Sherman & Salisbury, 149)” Plebeians gained rights in this conflict, the main thing they gained was a written code of enforceable  law code that could be consistently enforced (Sherman & Salisbury, 149).  In addition, policies were implemented that required  all citizens to participate in two assemblies that elected the magistrates who served the state (Sherman & Salisbury, 150).” During the assemblies, a man is be elected to the respective offices.  Each serves a one year term. After serving for a year the man would become a Senator of the Republic. As the textbook notes, the Senate was an institution that had very little constitutional power but a great amount of influence (Sherman & Salisbury, 150).” Terence’s early experience in the cosmopolitan city no doubt prepared him to con-tribute to Rome’s growing interest in Hellenistic literature (Sherman & Salisbury, 162).” The authors note this because Terence had embraced culture and was clearly educated enough to implement a transition of leadership.

Publius Terentius Afer and Cosmopolitan life-style in Rome

Rome had a knack for embracing aspects of different cultures and then integrating them into their society. In regards to North Africa, “The young slave was brought to Rome and sold to a senator, M. Terentius Lucanus recognized the child’s promise and had him educated as a freeman and then granted him his freedom (Sherman & Salisbury, 162). It was traditions like this that led to the African influence and cosmopolitan lifestyle in Rome.  The level of culture and diversity awareness exemplified by the Roman elite and emperors in power stemmed from their military background, but ultimately influenced the culture of Rome. In later years this would also be the cause of its downfall as it would over extend itself culturally to the point of losing identity.

Julius Caesar’s dictatorial power in Rome?

After Terence’s death, Cicero and Caesar, became known for their eloquence of language. Audiences ever since have found his plays brilliant (Sherman & Salisbury, 162).” Julius Caesar’s love of literature translated into a legacy which he established for himself and it grew out of his active political life, and enhanced the admiration people felt for him. His rise to power can be attributed to his use of literature to enhance his reputation in Rome (Sherman & Salisbury, 166). In the following civil wars, Caesar enjoyed plebeian support, but needed an army before taking power (Sherman & Salisbury, 168). Once he had acquired an army, he became recognized as a brilliant man in all fields, so much so that to date he is studied and admired by historians.

The chaos and confusion after Caesar’s death led to Rome’s instability because there were members of the Roman Empire who sided with the lost Caesar and knew who his murderers were and then their were those who were either in the dark to the reality of his assassination or supporters of the conspiracy.  As the textbook notes, “But when, upon the opening of Cæsar’s will, it was found that he had left every Roman citizen a considerable legacy, and they beheld the body, as it was carried through the forum, all mangled with wounds, the multitude could no longer be kept within bounds (Sherman & Salisbury, 169). The consequences of the Punic War did not turn out good for Cathage. “The once- shining city of Carthage would lie in ruins for a century until Rome itself re-colonized it (Sherman & Salisbury, 159).” This was largely do to the fact that as brilliant as Hannibal was at defeating the Romans, once he had depleted resources and need support from Carthage and surrounding lands, he could receive this support due to the Diplomacy executed by Caesar.

The Roman Empire 10 Points

The military defined the stability of Rome. The Wars that extended into Asia, resulted in the loss of the farms owned by the soldiers.  Also the wars brought on new slaves that made it difficult for farmers to compete. In politics Tiberius Gracchus and his brother took on the issues of the poor. Julius Caesar was one of the first generals who married politics to war. Many generals followed in his footsteps. Political power of the senate depended on the character of those in power. Power in Rome was attained 46 B.C. Dictator for Life, and Emperator which became to be known as Emperor, or Solid rule. After two years of dictatorship Caesar was assassinated by senators of the senate who did not want to be In the Battle of Actium Octavian officially vanquished all of Caesars this resulted in the “Pax Romana’, the longest period of peace and stability that Rome and Asia have ever known. He did not get rid of the senate, but just made sure it was run by his men. This transition resulted in the Emperor changing the structure of the military.  Caesar creating the position of Emperor and then Octavian taking on the position and expanding its power, made it so that military en were no longer free agent entrepreneurs

Explain How Augustus Administered the Empire Under the Principate and the Challenges He Faced.

Augustus administered the empire under the Principate by adapting it to withstand pressures and challenges that were becoming a common trend. The authors note that this was an early adaption, they say, “from the subsequent struggles, the principate established by Augustus was transformed to withstand the new challenges facing the empire (Sherman & Salisbury, 189).” Since the armies grew strong under the military policy of the Five Good Emperors, they became “king makers” (Sherman & Salisbury, 189). Augustus was a diverse leader during this period. He spoke Latin with a North African accent. He also seemed to get along better with the commoners and provincials than the old wealthy families of Rome (Sherman & Salisbury, 189).

There was a very distinct structure to how Augustus ruled under the Principate. The text notes that, “Under the principate as established by Augustus, the empire was ruled by a partnership between the emperor and the Senate; Septimius and his successors ruled with the support of the army, creating a military dictatorship (Sherman & Salisbury, 189).” This means that power was spread throughout the government in a fare enough in an effective way for policies to be enacted.

China’s Han Dynasty and the Silk Road

The Han emperors established a centralized power structure backed by a bureaucracy. This central authority allowed them the right to build an “extensive network of roads and canals to facilitate communication throughout the realm (Sherman & Salisbury, 183).” The way the structure worked was by the Hans facilitating trade, which ultimately led to the development of “silk road,” which linked China and the West in very valuable ways (Sherman & Salisbury, 183). Long term economic ties with Eastern Asia affected the Roman Empire in that by 200 c.e., the Han dynasty had collapsed and the empire lay in pieces. The trade along the silk road suffered too, but stories of the prosperous East continued to capture the imaginations of Westerners (Sherman & Salisbury, 183).” This is how a centralized authority and ample trade was established through word of mouth.

Aspects of the Roman Empire

Art was used to legitimize Claudius’s right to rule by enhancing his prowess through the embodiment of power. Symbolic images like the superimposition on the cameo to emphasize a family connection, is the core example of how art signified his right to rule. The text goes on to note that the “first citizen,” and the “horns of plenty” on the front of the artwork demonstrate to the prosperity this dynasty promised to bring to the Romans (Sherman & Salisbury, 180).The text identifies the work as both a piece of propaganda and art. The authors note that, “it shows Claudius and his wife Agrippina the Younger in the foreground superimposed on Germanicus—Caligula’s father—and his wife Agrippina the Elder (the younger’s mother) (Sherman & Salisbury, 180).” This was to imply a natural and familial transition of power was occurring by allowing Claudius to rule.

Decadence and the Population Problem

Romans had a difficult time reproducing. At one point Augustus implemented a  a law that freed women from male guardian-ship if they gave birth to three children, and if the woman was a slave, she had to give birth to four children  (Sherman & Salisbury, 187). The text notes that “fecundity in the empire certainly had plummeted to alarmingly low levels (Sherman & Salisbury, 187).” Fecundity meaning the act or ability to reproduce, it is certainly clear why laws were implemented to increase the population.

The Concept of Tetrarchy

Tretrarchy is the rule by four men. The influence of this method can be seen when Diocletian organized his government into a tetrarchy and he split power “Turning to the problems of communication, administration, and succession, Diocletian orga-nized the government into a “tetrarchy,” or rule by four men. Diocletian ruled in the wealthier east- ern region of the empire while assigning his partner, Maximian, to rule in the west (Sherman & Salisbury, 191).”

Early Christianity 10 Points

The apostles, the followers who had known Jesus personally, started traveling in the goal to deliver his message to others .Jesus was accompanied by a small group of devoted followers, called apostles. They carried on his message after his death. The text also notes that there was a small group of Jesus’ followers who were led specifically by apostles Peter and James. This group was significant formed another Jewish sect that modern historians called the “Jesus movement” to identify the period when followers of Jesus continued to identify themselves as Jews. Roman use of scapegoats can be seen in the persecutions of Christinas for crimes they did not commit. The text notes that, “To quell accusations that he was responsible for a devastating fire in Rome, Emperor Nero looked for scapegoats and implemented the first large-scale persecution of Christians in Rome in 64 c.e. Hundreds of Roman Christians were executed,  and apostles Peter and Paul were a part of this group. This act set a precedent that would be repeated often throughout next two centuries.

What Religious Motivations Under Girded the War?

When the Jews fled with their children and wives, they journeyed into the desert and hid in caves. The King’s generals pursued the Jews into the desert; and when they had overtaken them, they tried to persuade them to repent, and those who chose not to were burned alive in the caves on the Sabbath during the war (Sherman & Salisbury, 136). Maccabees compromised their own religious beliefs to fight the war by fighting on the Sabbath. About a thousand, of the  wives and children of these men were burned I the caves. The ones who survived joined Mattathias and appointed him to be their ruler. Mattathias trained them, even on the Sabbath, which at first they were opposed to, but in a historical speech he said they should fight “fight even on the Sabbath day, and told them that unless they would do so they would become their own enemies by observing the law [so rigorously] while their adversaries would still assault them on this day, and they would not then defend themselves; and that nothing could then hinder but they must all perish without fighting. This speech persuaded them, and this rule continues among us to this day, that if there be a necessity we may fight on Sabbath days (Sherman & Salisbury, 136)-”

The Jesus Movement

Jesus was estimated to have been born during the reign of Augustus (r. 27 b.c.e.–14 c.e.) at the beginning of the empire, a child named Jesus was born in about 4 b.c.e., possibly in Bethlehem  (Sherman & Salisbury, 196).”The texts likens Jesus to the Pharisees, due to his he appealed among the poor. It noted that had many of the same teachings as Hillel the Elder.  The text also notes, that “his teachings also had some qualities in common with the Essenes, who had written of a coming “Teacher of Righteousness (Sherman & Salisbury, 197).”Jesus preached his teachings  in Judea and Galilee for three years. Enormous crowds were drawn to listen to his message as he preached peace, love, and care for the poor and suffering (Sherman & Salisbury, 197).

The Rise of the Church 10 Points 

Christianity in the Roman Empire:

The text notes that the Christianity significantly influenced Rome. The author states, “Christians also reshaped the social fabric of Roman life. For example, they did not believe in exposing unwanted children. (Sherman & Salisbury, 206).” Views on sexuality shifted  due to the Church’s influence and  the cult of saints became a strong part of Christian faith as well as Roman beliefs (Sherman & Salisbury, 206). The text notes that, “. Just as people believed that martyrs could intercede for them with God, so they felt convinced that prayer to a holy man or woman might also help them attain their de-sires. (Sherman & Salisbury, 206). The church also played a major role in caring for the poor and needy . They handle numerous doctrine as far as moral behavior.

What Did Christianity Offer That Resulted in Its Triumph?

The texts notes that Christianity gained in popularity in Rome when Constantine adopted the faith. He saw it as a way to embrace or embody supernatural powers in battle.“In the long tradition of Roman emperors, Constantine looked for supernatural help in his wars with his rivals. (Sherman & Salisbury, 201).” This notion is what resulted in his embrace of the Christina faith and stories of dreams that led him to wage war in the name of God and Rome. The text notes, “That night he had a prophetic dream explaining that soldiers would triumph only if they fought under Christian symbols. (Sherman & Salisbury, 201).” He was such an advocate for Christianity that slave were also converted to the faith as a standard practice.

The Decline of Rome 10 Points

In the Decline of Rome Weber points out the significant changes that occurred which resulted in the eventual Fall of Rome. He does point out that most civilizations fell during this time, and that for Rome to last as long as it did it was quite an accomplishment. Factors like Barbarian growth in power from the outside the walls. The failed leadership of the senate to lose power to Emperor control, he says that  while this briefly lead to new prosperity for the empire with Octavian taking power it also meant the decline of the culture once tyrants were able to grab hold of the position.

The problems  the Roman Empire face between the time of the Five Good Emperors and of Diocletian and how did these problems affect the stability of the Empire?

“While armies were busy trying to create emperors, Rome’s borders were threatened on all fronts. In the north, Germanic tribes (discussed more fully in Chapter 6) began to penetrate across the Rhine and Danube defenses (Sherman & Salisbury, 190).”

“As the poor in Rome received more and more food subsidies, the city had to spend more money on imported grain, further reducing the treasury (Sherman & Salisbury,190).”

“Gold coins vir- tually disappeared from circulation, and by the mid-third century the silver content of coins dropped to a negligible 1 percent. Not surprisingly, inflation struck (Sherman & Salisbury, 190).”

“To worsen matters, plague spread through the empire from China along with the luxury goods that came along the silk road (Sherman & Salisbury, 190).”

Discuss each of the following:

The Romans Historian Tacitus’s Description of the Germans

“Therefore, Tacitus portrays the Germans as strong and brave people who cared for their families and raised sturdy children. (Sherman & Salisbury, 216).”

German Agriculture and Diet

“The German peoples raisedcattle but seldom ate the meat—the animals were too valuablefor the milk and labor they pro-vided (Sherman & Salisbury,217).”

“They apparently invented a large, wheeled plow that only a team of six to eight oxen had thestrength to pull (Sherman & Salisbury, 217).”

Discuss Arian Christianity and Explain How It Differed From Traditional Christian Beliefs.

“Other tribes (Visigoths and Ostrogoths) were Christian but had been converted by a missionary named Ulfila (ca. 310–ca. 381), whose Christian ideas had been shaped before Arius’s teachings had been condemned at the Council of Nicaea in 325 (Sherman & Salisbury, 220).”

“Catholic subjects from his Arian ones, the religious differences further splintered an already weakened central authority (Sherman & Salisbury, 221).”

The Fall of Rome 10 Points

Finally, In this section Weber poses two questions, why did the Empire fall, or why did it last as long as it did. He points out that during this time there was much corruption in Rome. The title of emperor became auctioned off to the highest bidder and there were numerous assassinations. The military became de-Romanized by requiring each legion to enlists its own men, and since these legions were permanently stationed on certain fronts, they tended to enlist soldiers within their reach, which were usually barbarians or members of other cultures which made them have less national pride.

Ins um, Web paints a clear picture that depicts the Rise and fall of Rome reliant entirely on military power. Weber credits the fall of Rome to the coming of the Barbarians as they became stronger beyond the Roman walls and continued to attack.  While the Barbarians were always the enemy and posed a threat, near the Fall of Rome, by the 4th century, the new Roman soldiers were ex-barbarians.

Based Upon the Textbook

Discuss Whether Rome Really Fell – Explain the Opposing Views on This

Explain the Contributions to Each of the Following to Learning:

Boethius translated works of Aristotle from Greek to Latin.  These translations became the basis for the study of logic for centuries. He was also a bit of an inventor as he created a water clock for his community of patrons p(Sherman & Salisbury, 223).His most significant and acclaimed  work was“The Consolation of Philosophy, while in prison. In The Con- solation,Boethius thought about the injustices of life and found comfort in philosophy (Sherman & Salisbury,223).”

Dionysius Exiguus

“Dionysius Exiguus, a Greek-speaking monk, was another respected scholar in Theodoric’s Italy. A skilled mathematician, the monk calculated the dateof Easter (which changes each year), and Dionysiusapparently was the first to suggest that calendars be dated from his estimation of when the Incarnationof Christ occurred (originally the b.c./a.d.system, which has turned into b.c.e./c.e.) (Sherman & Salisbury, 223).”

Cassiodorus “Thoroughly trained in Roman writings like the Aeneidand Livy’s History (both discussed in Chapter 5), Cassiodorus seems to have recognized the power of historical writing to create and preserve a people’s identity (Sherman & Salisbury, 224).”

Describe each of the following:

Merovingian Christianity

“The most famous Merovingian was Clovis (r. 485–511), a brutal man who murdered many of his own relatives to consolidate his rule (Sherman & Salisbury, 222).”

“Accord- ing to Gregory, Clovis’s wife, Clotilda, was a Christian and was influential in persuading the king to con- vert. In the tradition of Con-stantine before him, Clovis reputedly vowed to convert if he won a significant battle (Sherman & Salisbury, 222).”

The fall of the Merovingians

“Although Clovis had been highly skilled in forg- ing a Christian kingdom from the ashes of the Roman Empire in Gaul, the subsequent Merovingians were not as com-petent (Sherman & Salisbury, 223).”

“By the seventh century the authority of these kings had deteriorated—fre-quently, children inherited the throne and in turn died young, leaving the throne to another child (Sherman & Salisbury, 223).”

“Real power began to be exerted by the “mayors of the pal-ace,” an office controlled by another noble family, the Carolingians (Sherman & Salisbury, 223).”

Explain the Weaknesses That Led to the Collapse of the Visigoths.

“Two flaws marred Visigothic civilization, how- ever. The first was a delight in political assassina- tion, which even the violent Franks called the “Visigothic curse.” (Sherman & Salisbury, 224).”

“The second problem was Visigothic persecution of Jews (Sherman & Salisbury, 224).”

The Byzantine Empire 10 Points 

Based solely on Weber’s comments in Lesson #15 each of the following was addressed. Initially Constantinople faced major geographical challenges trying to rule a Mediterranean empire. The vast distances between Byzantium and the other lands they wished to conquer or rule, resulted in Constantinople During the 6th century and the 7th century the Byzantine lost and regained parts of its empire. It could take two or three months to get from Crete or Carthage by boat. This is the reason why it was so difficult for the Byzantine Empire to expand so it eventually despite this, Constantinople still managed to maintain its reputation as the praised city of fashion, trade and temptation. The most important characteristic that kept Byzantium alive, was the ideology that the city and it’s representatives were protected by God. When emperors were assassinated and replaced, policy remained the same because policy was based on religious faith.  The throne of the Byzantine Empire was stable because the position was assumed to be anointed by the lord. This made the throne open to everyone. The only condition was the ruler needed to be an Orthodox Christian. It was open to peasants and nobles, scholars, and unknown men. Leo the 1st was a butcher, Justin the 1st was a swine herder. Justinian was the nephew of Justin. There were 88 rulers who ruled Byzantium and over one third of them were assassinated.

Based Upon the Textbook

  1. Describe the following aspects of the Byzantine Empire:
  2. Industries

Byzantine industry thrived due to the abundant trade that occurred within Constantinople. As the test notes, “The Byzantine Empire also grew rich producing luxury items. Artisans in Constantinople and the other major cities of the east crafted expensive fabrics, fine jewelry, glassware, and ivory works (Sherman & Salisbury, 229).”  Trade in Constantinople can be attributed to its prime location between East and Western civilizations. While it was difficult for the Byzantium to expand its empire, Constantinople had positioned itself directly.

The Nature of Diplomacy

Diplomacy, specifically the act of keeping emperors to appear as untouchable from their subjects through strict ceremonies, and impressing Barbarians as well as other enemies, was essential for the prominence of Byzantium and a key aspect of the culture. As the text notes, “many Byzantine emperors considered diplomacy as important as war, and therefore worthy of just as much investment (Sherman & Salisbury, 231).” Diplomacy also became an essential part of trade and cultural interaction near the late 6th to 7th century when Byzantium gave up sights. They understood that diplomacy was cheaper than war. Rituals to impress and convert prominent Barbarians involved everything from offering them Byzantium wives, lands and their own monk for their vow to fight for the empire and its Christian Emperor.

Byzantine Chariot Races

In Rome, men and women would gather in the Forum or the Colosseum to express their collective opinion, but in Constantinople they gathered to see the chariot races (Sherman & Salisbury, 229).The great race track—the hippodrome—could seat 40,000 people, and the emperor frequently addressed his people there. The two chariot teams, the Blues and the Greens, signified much more than simply a love of sports. People aligned themselves with the teams as we do with political parties—by wealth, reli-gion, social class, and political inclination (Sherman & Salisbury, 229).”These races were an essential part of the expansion and popularity of Byzantium culture.

The Religious Controversies Within the Byzantine Empire

The main religious conflict that occurred within the Byzantine Empire wa that the religious word of the Pope was seen as Christ’s word. The problem was that many people disagreed with the Bible’s interpretation as shown here,“The claim that the supremacy of the pope is based on Christ’s words to Peter is called the Petrine doctrine of papal suprem- acy. Not surprisingly, some people— especially the emperors in the east and some other bishops— disagreed with this interpretation of the Bible (Sherman & Salisbury, 225).” This was the core conflict between the Emperor and the church.

The Fall of Byzantium 10 Points

In this section Weber notes that the Byzantium Empire was one with the church. This meant that when the church was successful the society was successful. These were the churches of the state.  Religious dissent or disputes turned into political dissent as well, and this was a very complicated An example of one of these disputes can be seen in the argument that Christ had a human nature verse the idea that he had no humanity and was all divine. This was a dispute that lasted for centuries and it During this time Muhammad arose in power and recognition. By the end of 700 A.D., the Arabs ad conquered Persia. Muslim did not have to pay taxes only non-muslins paid taxes. This was the start of the disputes between Eastern and Western religion. At this time, because the Arabs were so culturally tolerant, by doing acts like embracing other religions as opposed to waging war on them, but considering Arabs of a higher class.  Another outside pressure that occurred

Based Upon the Textbook

Those Things That Made Constantinople a Vibrant City

Constantinople not only was the administrative and cultural center of the east, it also served as the economic hub. (Sherman & Salisbury, 229). The trade with Islamic culture led to a vibrant growth for Muslims. One key force of unity in Islam was the use of Arabic as a common language. Since it was used among Muslim and to communicate the Islamic faith it also expanded into other realms of use. The text states that, “Therefore, Arabic became the language of business, government, and literature in Islamic strongholds. Prayer and pilgrimage also served to solidify the Muslim world (Sherman & Salisbury, 238).” The core difference between Arabs and other Muslims lead to conflict. The idea of one group of people being a chosen people following a chosen religion leads to disorientation and disunity when that religion expands and converts non-Arabs. Another issue that evolved was the conflict of who would take the place of the prophet. “For all its cultural commonalities, the Muslim world was not without strife. Two related problems led to conflict within the Muslim territories. One problem centered on ethnicity—specifically, relations between Arabs and other Muslim peoples. The other involved a pressing political question: Who would rule after the death of the Prophet? (Sherman & Salisbury, 240).

The Dark Ages 15 Points

Weber defines the opens this section by pointing out that the Roman Empire had been taken over by Anglo-Saxons, Lombards, Arabs and The Roman Church. This was largely due to Rome’s embrace of other cultures and their cosmopolitan ethics. Barbarians had been converted to Christianity in the 5th and 6th centuries, but as the Barbarians were converted to Christianity the Church became more barbarized, brutish and superstitious beliefs. The Barbarian ultimately led to the demise of Rome and the beginning of the darkages through diluting Rome’s military effectiveness. There were dynasties of bishops, where there was barbaric killing within families where no one could trust their own family members. Bishops had slaves and concubines, shields and swords. Weber points out that the time period of the Dark Age was filled with violence and corruption, loyalty and honor are not preserved, but religion was able to pertain power through the threat of spiritual violence and fear of the wrath of God. Weber identifies this power of the church as a period when Saints played a significant role in daily life. Saints were in effect super natural powers and they were thought to live in sanctuaries where they could look over the good of the and the people.  The Christian Saint adopted features of mythology they became like witch doctors and demigods. The Christian ministry had to be filled with charismatic and motivational saints. Wives and female saints became a significant method of converting people of other cultures to Christianity.This lead to a prohibition of polygamy, since it was no longer required to inbreed to main power, as religion was a more effective method of converting strong military and wealthy pockets into the church and to serve the culture. St Benedict created the monkhood an enforced abstinence and religious services through public prayer.

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