The Eating Disorder: Bulimia, Essay Example
Eating disorders are psychological health hazards characterized by tremendous and risky eating behavior. There are three primary kinds: anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and binge eating disorder. Anorexia usually concerns extreme weight loss due to starvation. Bulimia usually features overeating large amounts of food (bingeing) and then getting rid of it by throwing up, utilizing stimulant laxatives or diuretics, or by fasting or exercising extremely. Binge eating disorder incorporates uncontrollable desires to eat large quantities of food in a brief period of time. It frequently leads to overweight. While on the other hand Bulimia patient trips to the restroom right after every meal.
Serious cases may need hospitalization and/or around-the-clock treatment in a residential eating disorders clinic. “The main question is how can they be prevented? Education is the main tool for preventing eating disorders. It is also helpful to learn healthy eating habits and ways to improve self-esteem” (Hay, et. al, 2007, pg. 59). A well balanced nutritious diet and slight exercise can assist people stay at a healthy weight. This paper will explain eating disorder Hunger and how to prevent it.
This paper will identify and explain the connectivity of different procedures variables originated from the cognitive model of bulimia nervosa (BN) and weekly outcome. We will consider 39 patients with BN get admitted for bulimia treatment. With the one week gap between each measurement during the course of therapy, the theory derived process and results variables were measured over and over. Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) time series methods were used for the data analysis. In the process variables weekly variations are self-efficacy regarding the resistance to excessive eating, impaired beliefs, positive and negative effect in the preceding results where once a week outcome did not influence the following process. These findings are persistent with the bulimia nervosa cognitive model and recommend the fact that self-efficacy, dysfunctional beliefs, negative and positive affect tend to be prospective targets for treatment program that require further research.
Details about Bulimia
Bulimia claims to be an infatuation with food and in addition, weight classified by repeating excessive binges followed by compensatory behavior, as well as self-caused vomiting and lot of exercise. “In 1980, the American Psychiatric Association formally recognized “bulimia nervosa” in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), a publication that’s updated various times. The diagnostic criteria for bulimia ended up being only slightly revised in subsequent DSM editions” (Hall, et. al, 2010).
Bulimia symptoms focus on food behaviors and weight gain anxiety, bulimia is usually a way to face the individual dilemma, psychological pain, and also chemical instability. Bulimia can put the focus away from painful emotions for instance, anxiety, trauma, depression symptoms, lower status, etc. bulimic disruptive behavior might begin as fast method to lose weight, it shortly becomes addicting. Dieting habits naturally lead to hunger, that is often followed by eating, remorse, bingeing, purge, relief.
Many individuals with bulimia tend to be self-conscious and reserved; sometimes they try to manage, to behave like they are eating normally around some other individuals. Numerous define, their feeling like two people – one who would like to give it up and stay in good condition, and another who generally sabotages. Their common traits are to lie and sneak out. Many people identify that they steal food which belongs to other people or looking through the trash during their severe attack. Even to them “common” meal feel like “too much” who is concerned of obtaining weight, a single bite of something “bad” would quite possibly be too much for some individuals. There was a woman who motivated to vomit soon after taking one can of diet soda (March, et. al., 2011).
The research done on the occurrence of eating disorders, one effective report of various researches displayed that 1.0 to 1.8% of college women meet the severe clinical elements for bulimia, and 2.6 to 3.3% have subclinical levels. Another well reliable study has found that 1.5% of adult females and .five% of adult males maintained a lifetime occurrence of bulimia. For example, one research of female high school and college students stated that 15% satisfied the criteria for hunger, even though all these figures appear abnormally high. There was actually a significant, short-term increase in prevalence in the early ‘1980s, when the people at first turned into sure of bulimia, otherwise rates among women have now remained slightly constant since that time.
The highly common eating disorders are: eating disorder nervosa (.9%), hunger nervosa (1.5%), and binge eating (3.5%). Yet another category, “Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specific (EDNOS)”, denote to subclinical levels of eating disorder or bulimia. Alternatively, this is a growing area to do with study and also these categories have changed in different editions of the DSM-IV-TR. For instance, binge eating began as a subcategory of EDNOS, and hunger was also assumed to be one kind of sick person behavior. Hunger has also been assembled with binge eating disorder, for noticeable factors. Completely, in all instances, the commitment with food is a sign of other serious issues, and various other characteristics do exists.
All these dysfunctions overlap so much that labeling them can be limiting. For example, an anorexic may possibly on occasion binge or purge. However, the differences between kinds of eating disorders are appropriate for clinical concepts to treatment and insurance company categories. The analysis criteria for Excessive Eating Disorder are modeled after those for hunger, but without compensatory behaviors or a occupation with weight and shape.
Indeed the question does not have any answer; due to the fact bulimia is a multidimensional dilemma. The reason for this is by variety aspects such as, but there is no limited to, culture, family, personality, genes, biology, and trauma. Even though there is proof that all of these aspects will certainly play appreciable role, none singly is a predictor of who will most likely be impacted. Dieting, so normalized in our society, is usually referred to as a “portal” to eating disorders. Many individuals with bulimia started restricting or purging as the outcome of the unsuccessful diet. Unfortunately, 95% of diet attempts end in failure, and also simply not all of any individuals derived serious eating challenges. So, while dieting is a risk aspect, it alone does not “cause” bulimia. Bulimia usually exhibits in families where exactly the psychological, physical, or religious needs of its members are not necessarily met and attachments are tenuous. In some of these families, emotions are not vocally explained, and correspondence abilities are lacking.
There might be a history of depression, substance abuse, or eating disorders; the child might inadvertently recognize that escape is an adequate, and essential, thing to do. Normally, parents are unaware of problems. For example, a girl who conceals her bulimia might possibly look to be an “ideal” child, showing an popular façade – outgoing, confident, and independent – while anxious emotions bubble underneath. She might be valued for not wanting to be nurtured, for taking care of her, and for growing up early, all the while feeling guilty and unlovable. “Bulimia is a way of expressing what cannot be said directly in words, in this case something like, “I want to be taken care of” or, “Would you love me if you really knew me?” (Hall, et. al, 2010).
There were 39 participants consecutively that were admitted to a treatment program for BN at Modum Bad, Vikersund, Norway. Modum Bad is a residential treatment clinic where psychotic patients who cannot have adequate local treatment opportunities and need more specific treatment. The admission requirements were signs and symptoms of BN that afflicted their daily functions, insufficient response to past treatment procedures and also age should be older than 18. Many of those who fulfilled these requirements had been completely notified regarding the research and also handed written authorization. The research had been executed in consent with the regional integrity panel. All the patients established 6 sections of seven patients. Three patients out of 42 rejected to join this research.
The age of 39 female patients were 29 years and all were Caucasian. While, the mean age at the beginning of the eating disorder was 16 years, and before admission, during last six months 29 which means 36% were working half time, 45 young females like 56% were on sick leaves and taking pay for their disability due to their psychological problems, six of them like 8% were unemployed and were depending on their spouses or were in school. Every one of the 39 patients had gained psychological treatment. 27 (69%) of them fulfill the admission criteria for BN while 12 (31%) for eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Three patients were dropped out at 5-7 weeks into the program.
They used multi component treatment of 15 weeks for bulimia and in closed groups of 7 were admitted. The treatment model was the combination of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and group dynamic therapy. The treatment program consists four meals daily, weekly therapy session, CBT session, and art therapy sessions. In the middle of the program they were allow to go home on leave and test their new skills in the natural environment.
Since we preferred to evaluate the temporary relations between our consistent observations of function and the best continued observation of medium result, and we used a basic research of concurrence in time series.
That is we inspected whether or not the function range of weekly data conditions (self effectiveness, defective values, pessimistic and optimistic impact) assumed the weekly outcomes series (bulimic indications and symptoms in relation to the body weight and shape). The link between the two is the cross-parallel function. For instance, for self efficacy and bulimic signs, the positive lag 1 cross correlation techniques comes by placing together the self efficacy score for week one along with symptoms score at week 2.
This procedure continues until the self efficacy score the next last week is paired with the last week symptoms score. By pairing self-efficacy scores with symptoms scores with a lag of 2 weeks, the positive lag 2 cross correlation is correspondingly derived. (Box, et. al, 1994, Pg.8 ).
Where symptoms lead self efficacy then for every viable negative lags cross correlation objective is calculated. Thus, there are many prospective relations among the elements that can be searched by the time series analysis regardless of the process variable forecasts a result variable or vice versa and also at what lags. It is literally viable that the impacts of techniques on a result or vice versa might not be recognizable quickly within a week, not appearing until more than a week has gone by.
Among the variables there are several relationships which might be examined by time series analysis: at what lags whether a procedure variable predicts the results or vice versa. It is often viable that the impacts of a function on results or possibly vice versa might not be obvious quickly in a week – possibly not showing up till more than week has passed. Due to the fact that for each patient the period of the series is quite brief to examined individually each and every of the consequence and the processes features from the individual cases were planned end to end to make series of long time period patients along with 2 blank examinations between each case. This led to point during one individual’s series and the next that is same to seasonal impacts in other types of time series. Besides that, to prevent the cross correlation between series, arrange two blanks between individuals.
The results outside of the advantageous intrapersonal components such as gender and personality and headed to surrounding examinations in the same individual is the same than the two random observations from other different individuals (Box, et. al, 1994).
Summing around thirty nine patients the per week methods were produced towards them for three hundred twenty four times. They had been finished 298 times 92. The 298 questionnaires with 3576 questions to complete, the sixty items were missing. While by the results fiver of our 9 questions was answered positively. Self-efficacy increased per week and which predicted less bulimic symptoms the following week. When self-efficacy increased a week the less concern regarding the body and weight were predicted the following week. Dysfunctional beliefs per week predicted were less bulimic symptoms not the following week but 2 weeks later.
Those who suffer from bulimia have brought forth various reasons for their disorder. Some are able to remember the particular reason for the initial binges along with how the behavior served them afterwards. Not many people were aware of the fact that the disorder could become addictive. The original causes are still in existence once the binge purge cycle starts; however, they become blanketed with secrecy, physical side effects, guilt and an ever increasing number of reasons to want to escape. Underlying reasons aside, bulimia tends to ‘operate’ on various levels. Instant relief is provided with binge eating. All other thoughts, emotions and actions are replaced by it. The only thing the mind dwells on is food. Everything else, including feelings, is set aside. The bulimic momentarily regains control after the binge-purge episode comes to an end. She is relaxed, high and completely drained because she doesn’t feel guilty for consuming so many calories. Soon, negative feelings start to take place of these feelings. The cycle is a debilitating, exhausting and painful one.
Broussard, B., (2003), Women’s experiences of bulimia nervosa. Issues and innovations in nursing practice.
Box, G. E. P., Jenkins, G. M., & Reinsel, G. C. (1994). Time series analysis: Forecasting and control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Inc
Hall, L.; Cohn, L., (2010), Bulimia: A Guide to Recovery. Retrieved from Google ebooks.
Hay, P.; Darby, A., Mond, J., (2007), Knowledge and Beliefs about Bulimia Nervosa and its Treatment: a comparative study of Three Disciplines, Psychol Med Settings, 14:59-68.
March, P., & Grose, S. (2011). Bulimia Nervosa. Castro-Fornieles, J., Bigorra, A., Martinez-Mallen, E., Gonzalez, L., Moreno, E., Font, E., &
Toro, J. (2011). Motivation to change in adolescents with bulimia nervosa mediates clinical change after treatment. European Eating Disorders Review, 19(1), 46-54. doi:10.1002/erv.1045
Time is precious
don’t waste it!