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Theoretical Basis for Practice, Essay Example

Pages: 6

Words: 1534

Essay

Introduction

The Behavioral System Model of Nursing practice, established by theorist Dorothy Johnson, addresses the significance of behaviors in promoting greater health and wellbeing in the patient population (Parker, 1990). Johnson’s model represents nurses as a primary influence in enabling patients to act in a manner that will lead to positive health outcomes for patients of all ages (Parker, 1990). With this model, the client must serve as the primary focus of nursing practice and should be viewed from a behavioral perspective in order to accomplish the desired practice objectives (Parker, 1990). Nurses must work collaboratively with patients to offer them an opportunity to explore specific behaviors to support favorable health outcomes on a consistent basis (Parker, 1990). The following discussion will address these objectives in greater detail and will emphasize the important of Johnson’s Behavioral System Model to expand and improve nursing practice objectives to support client behaviors and positive wellbeing.

Theoretical Concepts

With the Behavioral System Model of Nursing Practice, Dorothy Johnson sought to explore behavior from a comprehensive point of view in order to determine how to effectively evaluate patients and provide them with support, education, and guidance in promoting optimal health and wellbeing (Parker, 1990). The behavioral approach to patient care and treatment focuses on the client first and foremost and has a significant impact on wellbeing and recovery (Parker, 1990). From this perspective, the client’s environment must also be considered, as it provides a means of encouraging different behaviors, particularly when there is a system in place to support these behaviors (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). Johnson’s approach to exploring nursing practice also has an impact on how patients respond to specific conditions within the surrounding environment and how these issues are managed within the scope of individual behaviors (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). Johnson sought to convey that nurses were primarily responsible for supporting the behaviors of patients within a much larger system that encompasses the social, biological, and psychological characteristics of human beings (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). Under these conditions, it is possible for nurses to express their views and to demonstrate that clients should be evaluated using a behavioral systems approach to ensure that specific patient behaviors are implemented (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). This model also encourages nurses to recognize specific behaviors in clients that they have in common and to determine which behaviors will have a positive impact on client care and related outcomes (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003).

Johnson’s model also explores different subsystems that are chief components of a much larger behavioral system, including such areas as attachment, sexual, dependency, and aggressive, amongst others (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). Each of these subsystems require nurses to examine clients and their whole being rather than individual components so that the person is cared for and treated in a complete manner (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). This perspective also supports the engagement of nurses with their clients through an understanding of behaviors and their contributions to the client and his or her wellbeing, using a well-rounded approach (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). When nurses utilize this approach to serving their clients, their level of care and engagement is likely to increase as they provide the appropriate level of support (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). Johnson’s approach is effective because it demonstrates the value of nursing practice in addressing client behavioral concerns that could alter their wellbeing, thereby necessitating a shift in behavior in order to encourage positive health and energy surrounding a given client that might face serious behavioral challenges that have a detrimental impact on wellbeing (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003).

Theorist Background

Dorothy Johnson explored her own passion for nursing through her education and experiences within different practice settings. Johnson attended Vanderbilt University School of Nursing where she earned her BSN and earned her MPH at Harvard University, and her primary career path led to UCLA, where she was a Professor of Nursing (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). Johnson developed a strong interest and a passion in identifying the role of behaviors in patient wellbeing; therefore, she expressed her interest in this subject by viewing nursing as a comprehensive practice with a behavioral basis that is grounded in systems towards the achievement of greater health and wellbeing (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). Her beliefs regarding client behaviors demonstrated the importance of a specific model to integrate behaviors into a much larger system through the use of subsystems to address specific areas of human behavior (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). Through these perspectives, Johnson sought to explain why client behaviors have a significant impact on healthcare outcomes and wellbeing, and this served as the primary focus of her own research and nursing practice (Tourville and Ingalls, 2003). This model was established in 1980 and continues to serve as one of the key drivers of nursing practice from a behavioral point of view (Current Nursing, 2011). Johnson’s definition of nursing is as follows: an external regulatory force which acts to preserve the organization and integration of the patients behaviors at an optimum level under those conditions in which the behaviors constitutes a threat to the physical or social health, or in which illness is found” (Current Nursing, 2011).

Perspectives Regarding Persons, Nursing, Health, and Environment

Dorothy Johnson’s behavioral approach to nursing practice demonstrates the importance of behaviors and their overall influence on health. Therefore, her perspective may be applied to a number of key areas that impact nursing practice as a key contributor to a much larger behavioral system. For example, the humanistic approach to nursing involves the integration of the behavioral and biological subsystems as a means of applying behavioral approaches to nursing practice in an effective manner (Current Nursing, 2011). From a nursing-based perspective, it is necessary to provide clients with a greater sense of behavioral recognition in order to promote equilibrium within the different subsystems to achieve a greater balance of behaviors to preserve health (Current Nursing, 2011). The health-based perspective conveys the importance of factors that enable a person to respond to stimuli in a manner that will encourage positive behaviors and greater comfort to achieve balance (Current Nursing, 2011). Finally, the environment-based perspective influences the manner in which human beings relate to and exist in their surrounding environments, including the response to environmental events and stimuli that may impact their lives (Current Nursing, 2011). These areas support the development of new perspectives that engage nurses in the practice of recognizing specific behaviors and in addressing them in the context of a larger system (Current Nursing, 2011).

Role of Model in Advancing Psychiatric Nursing Practice

Johnson’s behavioral approach to nursing practice is highly influential in supporting different perspectives that have a positive impact on psychiatric nursing. This area of focus emphasizes the human brain and the subsequent behaviors that take place based upon human thought. Under these circumstances, it is likely that psychiatric nurses using Johnson’s model will demonstrate their commitment to understanding client behaviors so that nursing care and treatment is optimized for their specific needs. Psychiatric nurses must recognize that specific behaviors are dictated by brain activities, and when these activities are abnormal, there is a greater risk for negative behaviors that could have a negative impact on client wellbeing. It is the responsibility of nurses to work collaboratively with clients and recognize behaviors that may lead to negative health outcomes for clients. Nurses must work to determine how to best improve behaviors within the different subsystems so that they support effective treatment outcomes and greater wellbeing. Psychiatric nurses must demonstrate their willingness to work collaboratively with their clients in order to recognize negative behaviors and to promote recovery through these actions in a consistent manner. Johnson’s model supports these objectives because of its significant emphasis on behaviors and how they support human existence, but also create specific challenges that are difficult to overcome within the realm of psychiatric nursing care.

Conclusion

Dorothy Johnson’s Behavioral System Model of Nursing Practice represents an opportunity to explore the different dimensions of nursing in order to provide client-centered care and treatment that emphasizes positive behavioral outcomes. It is expected that these efforts will also support the ongoing growth and development of human beings so that their health and wellbeing are optimized as best as possible. There are considerable issues that relate to these models and that have a significant impact on patient care, including the understanding of specific subsystems and how they are integrated to encourage positive client health. Johnson’s model also explores the different dimensions of behavior that impact all stages of the life span so that additional efforts are made to encourage clients to engage in behaviors that will support their health and wellbeing, rather than deter from these objectives. Johnson’s model also influences how nurses view their clients from a behavioral perspective and the steps that are necessary to encourage positive and favorable patient outcomes. When patients engage in behaviors that deter their progress, it is more important than ever for nurses to address these concerns directly with their clients in an effort to encourage a shift in behaviors whenever possible to support positive and meaningful results.

References

Current Nursing (2011). Johnson’s Behaviour System Model. Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/behavioural_system_model.html

Parker, M. (1990). Nursing theories in practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Tourville, C., and Ingalls, K. (2003). The living tree of nursing theories. Nursing Forum, 38(3), 21-36.

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