Total Quality Management, Annotated Bibliography Example

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Annotated Bibliography

Dale, B. G., Boaden, R. J. and Lascelles, D. M. (2004), “Total quality management: an   overview”, Dale, B. G. (2nd Ed.), Managing quality, Prentice Hall International, Herts.

Total Quality Management is a familiar term that has been used in the business cycles for quite along time. The Gurus of TQM discipline like Juran, Deming, Ishikawa and Crosby have all defined TQM concept in different methods but the spirit and essence still has more or less remained the same. In the words of Deming, “TQM is a continuous quality improvement process aimed towards a predictable degree of dependability and uniformity”. He went ahead and identified fourteen principles of TQM designed to improve performance and productivity of the company.

Crosby, P. B. (1992). Completeness. Quality for the 21st century, Dutton, USA.

On the same note Juran defined quality as “fitness for use.” Juran believes that every individual in the organization must be involved in activities that make goods or services that are fit for use. Crosby defines quality as “conformance to requirements”. Crosby’s aim is to do everything right at the first time so as to avoid defects as much as possible.

Brenda Weeks, Marilyn M. Helms & Lawrence P. Ettkin, (2005) “Is your Organization ready for TQM? An assessment methodology”, The TQM Magazine, Vol. 7 Issue: 5.  

According to Brenda et al (2005), TQM can be defined as an organization’s continued endeavor to achieve quality assurance, planning, control and improvement. Thus we can say TQM is a holistic approach to the ways in which an organization conducts its operations. In the words of Ishikawa, (1985) TQM can also be defined as a “management philosophy that aims to integrate all the functions of the organization”. This includes such areas like marketing, engineering, design, finance, and customer care to focus on meeting organizational objectives and customer needs even more effectively and efficiently. Thus Ishikawa agrees with Brenda et al that TQM is a holistic approach towards organizational operations.

Origins of TQM

Davis, D. and Fisher, T. J. (2004). “The pace of change: A case study of the development of a   total quality organization”, International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Deming, W. E. (1982). Quality, productivity and competitive position, Massachusetts       Institute of Technology, Cambridge.

The origin of the term TQM has no exact date but most scholars trace it back to the aftermath of World War II. This is attributed to the efforts of such great early writers like Ishikawa and Feigenbaum who hailed from Japan. These gurus have greatly contributed to the advancement of the TQM terminology. Other gurus of quality management like Juran, Deming and Crosby. They have helped nature the extensity, practices and components that drive the concept, but it has been documented that none of this three persons put the term TQM in to use.

Garvin, D. A. (2008). Managing quality, The Free Press, New York.

Due to the increase in competition in the global scene, it has become an ultimatum for organizations to observe quality as a key point to focus on during production with help of TQM as a blueprint management issue. A substantial number of organizations are applying TQM and this term has become the heading of many journals, newsletters books and papers. It is noted that TQM will be a well-acknowledged system of management that is a key tool of creation of high quality products to suit the customer needs as we approached the end of the 2010 as opposed to what was happening two decades ago where the term was not applied at all.

Hackman, J. R. and Wageman, R. (2005). “Total quality management: Empirical, conceptual,    and practical issues”, Administrative Science Quarterly.

Although there are differences on views on what basically TQM constitutes, there are common facts and elements that run through this various definitions. This includes (customer and supplier relationship, support from the top management, and finally employee inclusion). Various authors have attempted to give the meaning to the various components of TQM. We will focus on the development of TQM with a short background review of the various stages that the formation of TQM preceded in this paper. This is in order to bring out the different comparative analysis for example from the Japanese to go towards management of quality and examination of Feigenbaum’s (1961) theory of TQC (total quality control) is developed.

Benefits of Applying TQM in Project Management

Drensek, R. A. and Grubb, F. B. (2005). “Quality quest: one company’s successful attempt at implementing TQM”, Quality Progress, Vol. 28, No. 9, pp. 91-95.

The implication of Total Quality Management is a viewpoint that is applicable in many organizations for the purpose of enhancing the operations of the business. Implementation of TQM has the potential of yielding merits that are associated with continuous improvement in service delivery and production of goods in the organization. Total Quality Management also leads to augmentation of efficiency in terms of equipments as well as human resources which consequently leads to overall quality improvement.

Kenneth H., Rose, (July, 2005). ‘Project quality management: Why, What and How?’ Fort Lauderdale, Florida: J. Ross Publishing.

These processes enhance proactive working system which protects deviation from the original ideal state. TQM application aids in streamlining operations of the firm. To achieve great productivity using this process of TQM efficiency is by tracing and eliminating trouble shooting in the working process and the systems.TQM unearths out unnecessary task and double the effort by minimizing the mistakes in the working process.TQM is a great help intervening and predicting such mistakes and unnecessary activities. Some important benefits in cost minimization include the following;

  • No repetitive work, this is because TQM emphasizes on doing something right for the first time.
  • Elimination reworks and unwanted repairs
  • Reduction of costs and reject products
  • Process efficiency which help to generate profit per product or service.

Lu Edmund & Sohal Amrik, 2003. “Success Factors, Weaknesses and Myths  concerning TQM Implementation in Australia.” Total Quality Management, 1993, Vol. 4, No. 3

These two authors hold that application of TQM in an organization brings about high quality management. This is due to the fact that there is increased knowledge, skill and experiences sharing. This in return brings about; High increase in productivity, wide product variety and Keeping the existing product well improved and in acceptable order. One of the greatest and long term benefit of  TQM with relevant to customer care satisfaction is  improved quality by identifying reasonable measure of quality that suits customer expectations in terms of product ,services and experiences.

Deming, W. E. (2006), Out of the crisis, Massachusetts Institute  of Technology, Cambridge.

By employing TQM it solves all the problems with tremendous achievement which customers expect. An applicable example of Total Quality Management to customer satisfaction includes such aspects like time management by changing the methods of client scheduling and handling and faster feedback to customers.

Maylor, H. (2006) The Project Management, Prentice Hall Publishing, London

Writing on the same topic, Maylor shares that applying TQM in a project brings about organizational development. There is organization development and changing the culture of working by making all employees aware of your TQM guidelines. This can be achieved by educating them on quality thus making it everybody’s concern. Thus it should not only be left to departmental quality control unit but should be responsibility of each and every individual in the organization.

Milakovich, M. E. (2001), “Total Quality Management in the Public Sector”, National Productivity Review.

TQM promotes brand development at least according to Milakovich. Team work guided by TQM leads to the creation of departmental teams with common knowledge which aims to:

  • Enhance good communication skills of individuals in the whole organizations
  • Share experiences thus deepening knowledge and skills, hence improving learning culture of an organization
  • Knowledge sharing, these results into broadening of knowledge of team members.
  • Deploying personnel who in return contribute and ensuring cost competitiveness.

Rago, W. V. (1994), “Adapting total quality management (TQM) to government: Another point of view”, Public Administration Review, Vol. 54, No. 1.Review.

As relates to HRM, Rago says that application of TQM brings the following benefit to human resources of an organization:

  • Supervision – this creates inner motivation which leads to enthusiasm among the working environment. TQM helps to extend ownership of the business process to individual business holders and to each worker involved through empowering them to avoid  mistakes without much delay
  • TQM works on eliminating the mistakes hence improving the productivity which leads to accomplishment of targets faster. This helps the employees to deepen their knowledge by using their creativity to improve the existing product and create a room for new one in the market.

Powell, Thomas (2005).Total Quality Management as a competitive Advantage: A Review and Empirical study Strategic management journal.

Powell believes that by applying TQM competitive benefits are attained. This leads the company to become more competitive in its setup. These are businesses that are characterized by demolition of barriers to entry and free flow of information and product. Such organization retains their market competitions by reducing prices, improving their existing products and by coming up with new products in the market place. Thus this is a very vital tool in enhancing not only company survival, but also project completion on time.

Roethlisberger, F. J. and Dickson, W. J., (1939), ‘Management and the worker’. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

The reviews on Total Quality assurance are very beneficial in helping companies in performance improvements. It helps in collection and tracking of all the various performances in as far as quality in an organization is concerned. It will help the company get to the past records and evaluate where they have come from, where they are and be in a good position thus, to determine where they are likely to be in some months or years to come.  This information will also help the organization in making short term and long term decisions besides guiding on the policies it is likely to come up with.

Thareja P. (2008), “Total Quality Organization Through’ People,Each one is Capable”, Foundry, Vol. XX, No. 4, July/Aug 2008

Thareja holds that the means through which the success in implementation of quality standards is achieved is mainly as a result of interrelated values shared by the leading organizations in terms of general performance. This concepts and values are foundations that combine both operational needs in a result driven framework and best performances within the organization being surveyed. This also implies that the manner in which a company gathers, measures analyses data will very much affect how quality standards are going to be affected in the long run.

Tichey, N. (2003). Managing Strategic Change. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Additionally, Tichey says it will also determine how feedback to customers is going to be handled. This is vital given the fact that customer driven decisions are key if an organization has to succeed in many ways. The feedback will also provide a good basis for the company to act on time. The other factors which can build or destroy quality standards in a company and depending on how they are handled include relations between employees and the leadership of the company, management of the various innovations, social responsibilities that the organization is involved in and relations between the company and its partners in various fields. The methods of measuring performance by the various companies should always be sensitive to both internal and external unexpected changes.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences. (2nd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Since its inception in the 20th century, the incorporation of TQM in organizations has never found its relevance like it has in the 21st century. This is largely due to the fact that Business environment has become very dynamic, crowded  and above all faced with very stiff competition a mid deteriorating economic conditions world over. Resource planning in many businesses has evolved over time and that is why today we have very independent Total Quality Management departments in many firms.

References

Dale, B. G., Boaden, R. J. and Lascelles, D. M. (2004), “Total quality management: an overview”, Dale, B. G. (2nd Ed.), Managing quality, Prentice Hall International, Herts.

Crosby, P. B. (1992). Completeness. Quality for the 21st century, Dutton, USA.

Brenda Weeks, Marilyn M. Helms & Lawrence P. Ettkin, (2005) “Is your organization ready for TQM? An assessment methodology”, The TQM Magazine, Vol. 7 Issue: 5. Appeared in the TQM magazine October, 2006.

Davis, D. and Fisher, T. J. (2004). “The pace of change: A case study of the development of a total quality organization”, International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management,

Deming, W. E. (1982). Quality, productivity and competitive position, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge.

Garvin, D. A. (2008). Managing quality, The Free Press, New York.

Hackman, J. R. and Wageman, R. (2005). “Total quality management: Empirical, conceptual, and practical issues”, Administrative Science Quarterly.

Drensek, R. A. and Grubb, F. B. (2005). “Quality quest: one company’s successful attempt at implementing TQM”, Quality Progress, Vol. 28, No. 9, pp. 91-95.

Kenneth H., Rose, (July, 2005). ‘Project quality management: Why, What and How?’ Fort Lauderdale, Florida: J. Ross Publishing.

Lu Edmund and Sohal Amrik, 2003. “Success Factors, Weaknesses and Myths concerning TQM Implementation in Australia.” Total Quality Management, 1993, Vol. 4, No. 3 Deming, W. E. (1986), Out of the crisis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

Maylor, H. (2006) The Project Management, Prentice Hall Publishing, London

Milakovich, M. E. (2001), “Total Quality Management in the Public Sector”, National Productivity Review.

Rago, W. V. (2004), “Adapting total quality management (TQM) to government: Another point of view”, Public Administration Review, Vol. 54, No. 1.Review.

Powell, Thomas (Jan 1995).Total Quality Management as a competitive Advantage: A Review and Empirical study Strategic management journal.

Roethlisberger, F. J. and Dickson, W. J., (1939), ‘Management and the worker’. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Thareja P. (2008), “Total Quality Organization Through’ People, Each one is Capable”, Foundry, Vol. XX, No. 4, July/Aug 2008

Tichey, N. (2003). Managing Strategic Change. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences. (2nd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Ishikawa, K. (1989). “How to apply companywide quality control in foreign countries”, Quality Progress.

Juran, J. M. and Gryna, F. M. (Eds.) (1988). Quality control handbook, (4th. ed.), McGraw-Hill, New York.

Juran, J. M., Gryna, F. M. and Bingham, R. S. (1974). Quality control handbook, (3rd edition). McGraw-Hill, New York.

Kanji, Gopal, K., (2007). “Business Excellence: Make it Happen.” Total Quality Management, Vol. 13, No. 8, pp. 1115-1124

Russell T., Westcott, (2008). ‘Stepping up to ISO 9004: 2000: a practical guide for creating a world class organization.’ Paton Press.

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