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Child With Fever, Case Study Example

Pages: 2

Words: 676

Case Study

Medical history is essential in providing the record of health information of a patient. History taking in children can be compromised by anxiety of the parents and the distress of the child. The history of a child can be best obtained from theparent of the child. A parent can give comprehensive information on the medical history of a child. In this case, Riley is complaining of fever and rash as reported by the mother. Historical data indicate that the child has been having a fever forthe last three days. The fever is high, and the body temperature of the child can get as high as 103-1040 Celsius. The feveris persistent. The red flag of the child’s history is that he has experienced rhinorrhea within the last 24 hours. In addition, he has developed red and diffuse non-itchy on the torso and abdominal area. The useful diagnostic mechanism in the caseincludes medical history, physical examination, and laboratory test. In case the etiology of the fever cannot be determinedeasily, it is important to conduct the differential diagnosis in order to establish the exact cause of the fever before treatment begins. The differential diagnosis involves the determination of the presence pathogenic microbes like bacteria and virus by determining the levels of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and monocyte in the blood (Lowell, 2012).

The red flag, in this case, is the elevated temperature of the child, the non-itchy rash and rhinorrhea. It is important to gather the past medical history of a child has to a physician for the first time. This is important in identifying andpreventing any risk that may be encountered during the management and treatment of a disease condition. The previousillness and the family medical history are essential in deciding the most appropriate treatment option for a child. Physicalexamination of the child is equally important before performing any diagnosis. Physical examination of Riley indicatesthat he has diffuse eretyamtaous rash. His temperature is very high. His heart beat and breathing rate are normal. Additional information such as the geographical location of the patient, exposure to people, animals and insects, the travelhistory, immunization history, medication and the date when the rash started are vital for coming with a proper treatmentplan for the child. The differential diagnosis, in this case, includes Chickenpox, Rubella, Measles, Scarlet Fever, Roseola infantum and Non-polio enteroviruses like echovirus (Duerr, 2013)

Fever is an elevated body temperature above the normal 98.6 F (37.20 C). The body temperatures usually vary below orabove the normal value by 1 F (0.6 C). A fever that is characterized by temperature above 38 degrees Celsius is of medical importance. Fever above 38 degrees Celsius is very severe and needs immediate medical attention. Fever isdefense mechanism that occurs when the body is invaded pathogenic microbes such as bacteria and virus. Pathogens cannot survive at an elevated body temperature. Proper physical examination and history of the patient can assist in coming up with a proper management and treatment plan for the patient since differential diagnosis can be very involving.

Management of fever aims at reducing the discomfort of the child. Fever indicates illness, but uncomplicated fever is harmless. Treatment should focus on treating the cause of the fever. Early intervention is vital in reducing the child’sdiscomfort (Cotler & Aronson, 2005).  Assessment of the intervention should always factor in the potential risk. Addressing the potential risk involves removing any excess clothing on the child to reduce discomfort. There should be good air circulation around the child, and he need to take enough fluids. The child should be bathed in case there is a highenvironmental temperature. A daily dose of paracetamol should be administered to the child until he is fully recovered. The temperature of the child should be monitored one hour after taking medication (Loo, 2009).

References

Cotler, J., & Aronson, S. (2005). Managing infectious diseases in child care and schools: A quick reference guide. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.

Duerr, K. (2013). Doctor Mom’s Natural Healthcare for Children. Cork: BookBaby.

Loo, M. (2009). Integrative medicine for children. St. Louis, Mo.: Saunders/Elsevier.

Lowell, E. (2012). Fever. Sutton, Surrey, England: Severn House.

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