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# Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Essay Example

Pages: 1

Words: 625

Essay

Compare and contrast 2 stages of Piaget.

The sensory motor stage is the first recognizable of four stages in cognitive development of a person. It is characterized by progressive understanding and construction of world based on symbolic interaction. The second stage is preoperational when the child starts to speak. However while understanding of the world begin the child cannot articulate concrete logic in dispensing information accurately (Piaget &Inhelder1973).

Discuss how you could scaffold and teach a child mathematics.

According to Sawyer (2006)scaffolding is a unique support applied to the learning process. Essentially, it is designed tofacilitate individuality of students’ learning needs inachieving personal learning goals (Sawyer, 2006). As such, the first step in teaching a child mathematics through scaffold strategies is identifying a task to be accomplished in learning a mathematical technique. One of the mechanisms employed in teaching through scaffolding is allowing students to set their goals. In setting their goals for accurately calculating values of two numbers it could be worded, at the end of this lesson students will correctly calculate summary values through addition of three numbers.

In making the activity interesting and engaging students can be separated in groups of three or four and allowed to select the numbers they would like to add together. The next is anticipating thatstudents will make mistakes in selecting more than three numbers or whole numbers as they might have been instructed. My task is then to correct this mistake before proceeding with the lesson. Thirdly, I would adopt the Initiation-Response-Follow-up (IRF) approach. Students will listen to my instructions and together assemble numbers one on top of the other on a board or paper, individually. They would use symbols to count the correct answers during the addition process. Their response to my instructions as well as interaction will be observed and guided.

A follow up evaluation would be conducted to determine whether goals were achieved after completing the task. A fourth intervention of scaffold learning is managing students’ emotions during learning tasks engagement. If students appear frustrated or bored my techniques will changetowards adjusting more appropriate measures of teaching adding values.

Define and discuss some of the different psychological effects of ADHD.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is itself a psychological irregularity. The psychological impacts of this dysfunction are immense and emerge from difficulty in controlling symptoms. For example, the inability to focus and complete tasks successfully creates a psychological disability producing insecurity. The condition takes over six months to be diagnosed. By the time a child is observed to be different, other children have become uncomfortable relating to him/her. Subsequently, acceptance in a group begins to be challenged. Children considered not as active may interpret such behavior as very irritating because ofADHD children touching their propertyjust committing pranks, which could be determined mischievous (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

Other psychological effects as the child grows into school age and adolescence include low self-esteem. The reason psychologists advance for low esteem relate to it being a sequel of inappropriate adjustment to peers. Often relationships are unfavorable and acceptance issues persist. This is a significant difficulty among children affected by ADHD. They are recognized as being different. This difference identifies them as maladjusted by peers. Even though counselling helps to a great extent when the situation is not resolved many adolescents become depressed and attempt suicide. Learning difficulties are often entwined in the psychological impact of ADHD due to poor attention and focus dyfunctions. These irregularities also influence development of low esteem among adolescent and pre-adolescent youths (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

References

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders:American Psychiatric Association. (5th ed.). Arlington. American Psychiatric Publishing.

Piaget, J., &Inhelder, B. (1973). Memory and intelligence. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul

Sawyer, R. Keith. (2006).The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press

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