Baseline Characteristics of European and Non-European
The article discusses the impact of Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe. In this article, the authors analyze the diagnosis of ADHD in adults, focusing on characteristics of this disease in Non-European and Europeans adults. The primary focus is the baseline characteristics of European and non-European adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD), while participating in a placebo-controlled, randomized treatment study. This study found that there is no significant difference between European or Non-European with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and they have similar characteristics and demographics. The study changes the perception about (ADHD), which most people are afraid of what they do not understand. The study presented the common perception that a hyperactive child in the mall or a disruptive child in school is associated with ADHD. However, the study concluded ADHD is just as prevalent in adults. The study indicated that in the European and Non-European adults spend most of the adulthood impaired because they have gone underdiagnosed in many European countries. However, the primary contribution is the similarities in characteristics between the ADHD adults both European and Non-European. The article explained that European adults that are left untreated for ADHD often are perceived as troublemakers unable to cope with society or lazy. However, the article raised the awareness level that ADHD is a disease that impairs the individual’s neurological system. In many the European countries, professionals working in the adult mental health field may not know that ADHD frequently persists well into adulthood. The article discusses the impairments of ADHD adults that are misunderstood by the European public. The article indicated that adults with ADHD in Europe often go untreated for ADHD, causing the adult to experience lower educational and occupational achievements. The European adults will also have problems in their daily relationships with families and close friends.
The outlook for European and Non-European adults with ADHD does not look promising; however, the article emphasized that European adult is go untreated ending up in very bad circumstances. Most adults with ADHD often have difficulty dealing with simple and complex issues while facing barriers in their personal lives and careers. One the primary characteristics are the mood swings that make it difficult to treat the adult with ADHD. The adult’s behavior is unpredictable and they are perceived as a danger to society. These erratic behaviors can be mild to severe and the can vary depending on the mood or situation. In this study, adults with ADHD are not always uncontrollable because if the ADHD adult is interested in the subject matter, their behavior may be improved with medication without incident.
Progress in Industry
The article encourages the global comparisons of ADHD to break the mode of ADHD by region or country. The article makes a statement about sharing information concerning ADHD problems globally. The study has reached out to other nations attempting to link complex possible cures and treatments. The study indicated that the more values that are considered in the study are more conducive to finding the key to the ADHD disease. This study has progressed forward trying different comparisons from previous studies that compared a person’s age, family history, educational levels, status in community, and behavioral conditions. This study brings a unique and fresh look at ADHD in comparison to not only NE Europe but also comparisons to other parts of the world.
The study presented new theories on the ADHD concerning the differences in levels of ADHD between those that have education and those that came from a little or no educational background. In addition, this study brings to the forefront how ADHD is misunderstood. The European population has an overall lack of understanding concerning the challenges for the adult with ADHD in Europe. This study showed how many ADHD adults in Europe have gone misdiagnosed or have not found suitable treatments.
Paper Conclusions Results
The results concluded that ADHD is not isolated in a specific country, the disease is worldwide. The authors described Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that continues into adulthood. In Europe, the evidence points to the similarities of European and Non-European having the same characteristics that closely resemble the ADHD disease in the world. The results were not clinically meaningfully different when evaluated with standardized mean differences. The study concludes very little conclusions could be drawn on the differences but the study examines the similarities that might provide more insight to ADHD. The study results indicated different regions of Europe and compared to other parts of the world, the characteristics remained consistent. The final findings indicated that the European population baseline characteristics are similar to other countries outside of Europe.
ADHD Traits: Correlates and Heritability in a Community Sample
In an article by Crosbie et al.,”Response Inhibition and ADHD Traits: Correlates and Heritability in a Community Sample” addressed the research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The article focused on the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for ADHD. The article analyzed how genetics factors can play a role in understanding the impact of ADHD. This author provided a comprehensive looking at the family of genetics that would educate students, researchers, and peers. The article explained the significance of heritability within the genetic traits of ADHD adults. The heritability examines the differences in traits between the adult and adolescent within a population. These factors are genetics and environment that create ADHD characteristics, which randomly contribute to the deviation between the adults/adolescents characteristics. The article emphasizes that heritability analyzes the contributions of different genetic factors in a population. The best example are some people in a population are taller than others, using heritability with ADHD attempts to identify genetic characteristics that may play a role in identifying similarities and differences within a population. The author summarizes that heritability is calculated by estimating the contributing factors of genetic differences in a population. The article makes a point about the importance of heritability in ADHD research because the studies can find quantitative genetics data that would be beneficial for real advances in understanding how to treat ADHD. The article stresses that society does not deal with ADHD adults very well because the ADHD disease is not in the forefront of the industry because ADHD is normally associated with children. The article describes some of the common characteristics of the ADHD adult such as the inability to adjust to difficult situations, often with being late to everything, forgetfulness, anger issues, and chronic boredom. The study suggested that the way the research was performed provides a foundation for other researchers seeking not only the strength of a particular study but also the weaknesses of the study. Which is very unique way of examining what methods work and what other methods that may not work with the new technology available? The researchers noted progress was made by the researchers using the regression analysis to assess the relationship between cognitive measures. This interesting study made advances in several domains of neurobiological research. During the research, they improved insight into the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in the development of ADHD through genetically informed studies of risk factors. They identified valid neuropsychological endophenotypes contributing to the definition of more homogeneous subgroups of patients to improve the power of genetic studies and facilitate the access to the neural basis of cognitive impairments. The studies were groundbreaking using molecular genetic studies showing the implication of common genetic variants but their small effects on the variance of the ADHD phenotype calls for improvements in research strategies (reduce heterogeneity, increase sample sizes). One of the things unique about the study was the imaging studies that documented alterations in brain structures involving the cortical dysfunction and abnormal connectivity. This means this study uniquely found a way to understand more about the cortex of the brain patterns and the correlations with ADHD impairments.
In the study, heritability and environment often provide some statistical variances that assist with understanding ADHD. However, the results do not find definitive findings but only estimates about the correlation of the gene traits because it depends on the different environmental variables that influence behavior. With that said the results of the study indicated Heritability estimates were essentially unchanged and are presented with ADHD controlled.
Investigation of The Znf804a Gene Polymorphism
The following abstract summarized the Investigation of the Znf804a Gene Polymorphism: To investigate the association between genotype testing for polymorphisms that can identify variations of distinctive genes associated with normal and abnormal drug metabolism. This article addresses the theory that specific gene variants may have the potential to improve clinical goals while addressing the common risk associated with adverse drug effects. The results indicated that combining two datasets did not significantly make an impact to the testing which showed no evidence of association.
How Article Help Us Understand ADHD
The article pointed out that researchers must separate ADHD adults that had some type of brain injury from the testing because it skews the results. To help the industry understand more about polymorphisms the study suggested additional research in this area should be considered. The study suggested their peers should focus on identifying any additional functional polymorphisms of this gene for investigation in further samples of clinical disorders that share genetic risks with either bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. This article indicated that adults with ADHD many times will have problems following simple directions or they forget things in minutes and their concentration levels are very poor. Many times the perception that the adult is unable to organize things may be an excellent indicator that the adult has not yet been diagnosed with ADHD.
Progress in Industry
The study suggested that recent findings support the research methodologies that will look closely at the genes that hold the key to the ADHD. A wide variety of candidate genes have been investigated in ADHD and other psychiatric disorders including BD, with some genes reported to be associated with both ADHD and BD. For example, a recent findings support the hypothesis that variation within circadian clock genes contribute to BD and related illnesses like ADHD, MDD and schizophrenia. With regard to ADHD and schizophrenia, there are now several papers showing that rare copy number variants affecting some genes are associated with both ADHD and schizophrenia (SZ).
The researcher suggested that their contribution to the advancement of the genetic studies of ADHD. The previous research completed by several studies have reported the occurrence of high rates of emotional liability and increased rates of depression in both child and adults patients with ADHD. The authors believe their peers will benefit from research that has linked ADHD with genetics, epidemiological, family and neuroimaging studies. In this study, the researchers used family-based ADHD data in the UK and Taiwanese population to test for an association and relationship of genetic factors. The results did not show any significant different in the population of the UK and Taiwanese samples.
Pharmacokinetics of Coadministration of Guanfacine
The article pointed out there is no clear-cut cure to ADHD, there are accepted treatments that specifically help patients control its symptoms. The article shared more education is needed because most of the treatments include some type of outdated educational approaches, psychological or behavioral modification including prescriptions to help adults cope. The article helped the industry and the community understands to positive nature of the drugs but at the same time explaining the potential drawbacks with these types of pyschostimulants. Some of the drawbacks are the Psychstimulant medications that could be potentially dangerous for the patient even though the ADHD stimulant drug provides all the warnings to the patient. The article made it clear that patients without other medical conditions may want to consult their physician before taking this medication for ADHD. The patients with heart or blood pressure problems might want to avoid this stimulant.
The advancements of this study of ADHD assisted the researchers and pharmaceutical industry with consistent testing of several drugs that could be mixed to treat ADHD without altering the intend purpose of the drug. This study leads the current research on drugs that do not alter the pharmacokinetic parameters of either medication. The study has been a leader in explaining why different types of drugs that are needed to help ADHD adults.
DNA Variation in the SNAP25 Gene Confers Risk to ADHD
The study concentrated on the DNA variants of the SNAP25 gene that associate with ADHD which is also associated with functional changes in the expression level of the transcript in a region of the brain. The study accessed the functional relevance of the SNAP25 gene concerning the genetic risk factors. The final results indicated that the SNAP25 tested was able to survive the permutation testing. The study determined that the DNA variation at SNAP25 effectively treats the ADHD by decreasing the brain activity that specifically impacts ADHD.
How Article Help us Understand ADHD
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable disorder of childhood with significant functional impairment and negative lifetime outcomes across all developmental stages. The article discussed the issues of previously unrecognized signals of ADHD, misconceptions about this disorder and information on getting an accurate diagnosis and treatment options. This study examined different methods of testing variants of SNAP25 to obtain the best results for treating ADHD.
Progress in Industry
The research has progressed with the study of SNAP-25. SNAP-25 is important for brain activity that supports the nervous system that directly controls the behavior of ADHD characteristics. The article help the researchers understand the relationship between SNPA25 and the brain while providing a solid foundation for future gene research.
Advancements in Industry
Our results are consistent with some but not all previous association/linkage studies. The studies are in line with previous research that tested the association of SNAP25 in relation to ADHD. This research added gene variants to the research testing which showed ADHD clusters in separate regions, which was different from any previous research.
The research data results indicated that the DNA variation at SNAP25 confers risk to ADHD and reduces the expression of the transcript in a region of the brain that is critical for the regulation of attention and inhibition. The results of the current study show that DNA variants of the SNAP25 gene that associate with ADHD are also associated with functional changes in the expression level of the transcript in a region of the brain that is an established pathological locus for ADHD. In summary, this study provides support for the involvement of SNAP25 as a susceptibility locus for ADHD. We hypothesize that the region between intron 3 and the 3UTR of SNAP25 may harbor functional variants that confer risk to ADHD. Finally, the study stressed the importance of independent replication of our findings preferably in different ethnic samples.
BennoRoesch,B,Corcoran,M.,Haffey,Stevenson,A.,Wang,P,Purkayastha,J.,Martin,J.,Ermer,J.(2013). Pharmacokinetics of coadministration of guanfacine extended release and methylphenidate extended release. Drugs R , 13:53–61,DOI 10.1007/s40268-013-0009-5
Crosbie, J.,Paterson,A.P,,Swanson, J.,Dupuis,A., Li, X., Shan, J.,Goodale, T.,Tam,C., Strug,L.J., Schachar,R.J. (2013). Response inhibition and ADHD traits: Correlates and heritability in a community sample. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 41:497–507 DOI 10.1007/s10802-012-9693-9
Upadhyaya, H., L.Adler, L.A.,, Casas, M,Kutzelnigg,A,Williams, D., Tanaka, Y., Arsenaul, J.., Escobar,R., Allen,A.J.(2013).Baseline characteristics of European and non-European adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder participating in a placebo-controlled, randomized treatment study with atomoxetine. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 7:14
Xiaohui, X, Breen,G, Luo,L., Sun,B., Chih-Ken,C.,Paredes,U.M., Huang, Y.,Yu-Yu,W.,Asherson,P.(2013). Investigation of the ZNF804A gene polymorphism with genetic risk for bipolar disorder in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. BMC Research Notes ,3, 6:29
Ziarih Hawi1,Z., Matthews, N.,Wagner, J.,Wallace, R.H.,Butler, T.J.,Vance,A.,Kent,L.,Gill, M., Bellgrove,M.A.(2013). DNA variation in the SNAP25 gene confers risk to ADHD and is associated with reduced expression in prefrontal Cortex.PLOS One, Volume 8,Issue 4, e60274