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Lung Cancer, Article Review Example

Pages: 3

Words: 930

Article Review

Abstract

Lung cancer can be defined as malignant growthsfound in the lung lobes or tissue. It is characterized by coughing up of bloody sputum accompanied with shortness of breath and gradual weight loss. 15% of cases diagnosed with the disease die after a brief six year period (Ferley et.al, 2008)

Health Care: Lung Cancer and how it relates to epidemiology

Introduction

This document will discuss lung cancer and how it relates to epidemiology, specifically taking into consideration its incidence, etiology, epidemiology and prevention measures. Finally a position statement concerning the disease will be articulated from the literature researched. A review of literature will inform the discussion.

Literature Review

Incidence

According to Ferley (2010) and counterparts Central and Eastern Europe has the highest incidence of males with Lung cancer in the world. It is at a rate of 56.5 per 1000. Next is Northern America with 48.5 per 1000 males and 35.8 females. Even though Eastern Europe has the highest male prevalence, female incidence is much lower than Northern America, which is 9.7 per 1000 females (Ferley et.al, 2008). Other countries, which have a reported high incident rates are Eastern Asia; Western Europe; Northern Europe; Australia and New Zealand (Parkin et.al, 2002). The incidence rate worldwide is 33.9 per 1000 males and 13.6 females.Worldwide an estimated 1.68 million persons diagnosed with lung cancer were still alive in 2008, after theinitial diagnosis in 2003 (Ferley et.al, 2008).

Etiology

The etiology of lung cancer has been proven to have a very strong relationship with social deprivation.  Quinn (2001) and associates have conducted studies regarding lung cancer trends in England and Wales. They discovered that lung cancer was 2.5 times more in deprived males than normal ones. It was 3 times more among nutritionally deprived women. This study revealed also that lung cancer occurs more in smoking people than non- smokers (Quinn et.al, 2001).

Supportively, studies conducted by Hecht (2003) show where cigarette smoking causesmore lung cancers than any other sources since it contains 60% of the carcinogens that initiate cancer growths. This affects people who actually smoke as well as those who inhale cigarette as passive exposure ( Hecht, 2003) Studies conducted in United Sates of America, United Kingdom and Australia have proved the consistency of increased risks due to passive smoke inhalation. This accounts of 20-30% of lung cancers (Pearce & Boyle, 2005).

Other pronounced causes have been associated with random gas 8-16%; asbestos, which has a synergistic effect with tobacco; air pollution accounts for14% present in sulphate aerosols, nitrous oxide; genetics and people exposed to industrial chemical which affect airways in the lungs such as arsenic, aluminum and coal  for just a few examples (Jaakkola & Jaakkola, 2006).

Epidemiology

According to Ferley (2008) and associates lung cancer is the most prevalent type of malignant lesion when viewed from the perspective of incidence and mortality rates internationally. In 2008 some 1.61 million cases were discovered. This disease further accounted for 1.38 million deaths that year (Ferley et.al, 2008).

People most likely to develop the disease are over 50 years of age. Ferley (2008) also revealed that more women have been diagnosed during the past decade. In United States of America the life time risk of developing lung cancer in men is 8% and women 6%. Ferley (2008) continues to deliberate that for every 3-4 million cigarettes smoked one death from lung cancer occurs. The smoking culture is believed to have influenced tobacco smoking among young people the researchers contended (Ferley et.al, 2008).

Kadara (2012) and counterparts in their studies have discovered that incidence of lung cancer is far less in developing countries than it is in the developed world. They argue that event though there have been increases in the incidence, which most researchers have associated with smoking lung cancer was present before this smoking era. However, during that time scientist did not acknowledge it as a significant disease (Kadara et.al, 2012).

Prevention measures

Prevention measures discovered from this literature review include no-smoking policy regulations; ban on cigarette smoking in certain countries.  Many counties advise the media to limit smoking advertisements replacing them by sensitizing the public on the harmful effects of using the substance. In addition smokers and persons exposed to passive cigarette smoking or air pollutants are advised to take Vitamins A, D, C and E (Witschi, 2001).

Conclusion

Position Statement

Based on this review of literature relating lung cancer to it epidemiology it can be concluded that this condition is a public health issues which ought to be addressed vigorously. Despite efforts to limit cigarette smoking more women are becoming victims. This could indicate that while scientists are concentrating on limitingcigarette smoking other contributory factors are ignored.

References

Ferlay, J. Shin, R. Bray, F. Forman, D. Mathers, C., & Parkin, M. (2010).Estimates of worldwide

burden of cancer in 2008. GLOBCAN 2008 Int J Cancer 2010. 127(12), 2893-91.7.

Hecht, S (2003). Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer. Nature Reviews. Cancer (Nature Publishing Group) 3 (10): 733–744.

Jaakkola, S., & Jaakkola, J. ( 2006). Impact of smoke-free workplace legislation on exposures and health: possibilities for prevention. European Respiratory Journal 28 (2): 397–408.

Kadara, H. Kabbout, M.,& Wistuba, I. ( 2012). Pulmonary adenocarcinoma: a renewed entity in 2011 Respirology 17 (1): 50–65

Parkin, M., Whelan, L. Ferlay, J.,Teppo, L.,& Thomas, B.  (2002).Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Volume VIII. IARC Scientific Publications.Vol. 155. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.

Pearce, J.,& Boyle P (2005). Is the urban excess in lung cancer in Scotland explained by patterns of smoking? Soc Sci Med. 60(12):2833-43

Quinn, M. Babb, P. Brock, A. Kirby, L., & Jones, J. (2001).Cancer Trends in England & Wales 1950-1999. (PDF 5897KB) SMPS No. 66: TSO

Witschi, H. (2001). A short history of lung cancer.Toxicological Sciences 64 (1): 4–6.

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