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Medication Diversion and Multiple Provider Episodes, Article Review Example

Pages: 5

Words: 1462

Article Review

Introduction

Concerns are increasing over the misuse of drugs and prescription drug abuse has become a serious growing drug problem. Nearly all individuals who misuse drugs obtain them from physicians rather than stealing from pharmaceuticals. Therefore, attention has to be diverted towards preventing the diversion of prescription drugs after dispensing the prescriptions.

Byrne, M., Lander, L., & Ferris, M. (2009). The Changing Face of Opioid Addiction: Prescription Pain Pill Dependence and Treatment.  Journal of Health & Social Work, vol. 34(1): 53-56

Purpose of study

If individuals suffering from substance abuse are not treated, misuse of prescription is likely to results into overdose death or even manifest in illegal behaviour. The study attempts to examine the impacts of the prescription addiction epidemic on the society. Further, it tries to explore the available remedies in an effort to curtail the epidemic.

A description of the sample

The study was conducted in 2010 on persons aged 12 years and above. These people were in need of treatment for an illicit drug use problem. This sample represents 31% of the total population. Out of the above sample, 1.5million people were given treatment for an illicit problem of drug use. Thus, 6.4million people were in need of treatment but were not given any treatment due to stigmatization from friends and workers.

The data that was measured and evaluated

Data released by Centre for Substance Abuse shows that the consumption of heroin as a drug of choice has decreased since 200-2005. At this time, there was an increase in the admission from other opioids. Since Florida implemented PDMP, the reports indicate that there is a decrease in consumption and sale of prescription narcotics. This leads the reader to assume that legislation aimed at combating the prescription and addiction problems is working. Data released by the US Drug Enforcement Administration suggests that there has been a drop in the sale off oxycodone from clinics and doctors’ offices. From this data, it seems like there is a strong possibility that with the decreasing prescription of narcotics, users are likely to shift to heroin and other drugs sold to satisfy their psychological and physical urge in the streets. However, the article does not show any data that explore the possibility that increased dependence on heroin could have a direct correlation to the decrease in supply of narcotics.

The results of the research

Byrne et al pointed out that recently, there has been a dramatic increase has been witnessed in the degree of abusing and dependence on prescription opioid pain medications. The study found that opioid derivatives are the most abused narcotics prescription. The chemical structure of these drugs is said to be similar to heroin. This shows that prescription pills come from the same class of drugs as heroin. The impacts of heroin and prescription opioid are essentially similar. This has made heroin a perfect substitute for prescription opiates.

Conclusions from the study

While the society is burdened with the expenses associated with addiction, the policy makers attempt to legislate the epidemic.  This leads into overcrowded country jails and prisons, which are rehab units and detox centres for offenders who are not violent. The society and policy makers seek possible ways to make the substances inaccessible, as this will naturally dissipate the problem.  The problem is that if the addicts are not given effective treatment they are likely to shift to illicit substances thus creating another epidemic.

Wilsey, B, et al (2010).  Profiling Multiple Providers Prescribing Of Opioids, Benzodiazepines, Stimulants, and Anorectics. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 112 (2010) 99–106

Purpose of study

This study seeks to determine whether there is a correlation between persons with mental disability and prescription drug abuse. It also seeks to justify that there is an existing need for multidimensional approaches in treating patients with non-malignant chronic pain. Screening of patients with chronic opioid abuse could assist in preventing misuse of opioid.

A description of the sample

The study was based on a population of people with mental disability who frequently with medical professionals. This population is said to be more prone to opioid and have a greater opportunity of misusing prescription opioids.

The data that was measured and evaluated

The study was conducted in 2009 on dispensing chemists. The researchers established that 174 million prescriptions for opioids were dispensed by retail pharmaceuticals in 2000. This shows that there was an increase of 48% in the dispensing of prescription opioids between 2000 and 2009.

The results of the research

The study suggests that people who misuse prescription opioid are likely to have a mental disability. This notion evaluates that a relationship exists between prescription opioid and mental disability. The researchers fond that young individuals aged between ages 18-21 years are associated with the use of prescription opioid. These participants have admitted that they have misused prescription opioid in the past. This study suggests that the use of opioid results into a decrease in aberrant behaviours and positive urine drug tests. Moreover, primary care providers can manage treatment for people with chronic pain using appropriate tools and utilizing a multidisciplinary team.

Conclusions from the study

The evidence gathered shows that medical professionals are aware of the potential risk associated with misuse of prescription opioid. In addition, the epidemic of misusing prescription opioid needs to be addressed through different approaches.

Inciardi, J et al, (2009). Prescription Opioid Abuse and Diversion in an Urban Community: The Results of an Ultrarapid Assessment. Journal Pain Medicine, vol. 10(3):537-48.

Purpose of study

The primary purpose of the study is to collect timely descriptive information from multidimensional sources. This information would be used to have a better understanding of the dynamic s and scope of prescription drug abuse and diversion within the Wilmington region.

A description of the sample

This study used six focus groups on 32 patients. Each focus group took approximately 90 minutes.

The data that was measured and evaluated

The study involved secondary data obtained from interviews with the police and drug abusers, regulatory officials, drug dealers and patients.

The results of the research

From the study, the key sources of prescription drugs include pain patients the elderly and the doctor shoppers including dealers working with all the former. The prescription drugs are popular in markets with its roots in the perception of abusers as less dangerous, less stigmatization and no legal consequences. Further, the study found that individual abusing prescription opioids appear to have easy access to heroin use.

Conclusions from the study

Physical education can easily reduce the diversion of prescription opioids. This can be achieved through realizing that a patient is diverting or misusing prescribed, medication. Medical practitioners should consider the risks associated with misusing of opioids before they initiate opioid therapy. In addition, educating patients on disposal of unused medications, safeguarding medications and understanding the impacts of selling their medications are necessary.

Gilson, A, et al (2011). Time Series Analysis of California’s Prescription Monitoring Program: Impact on Prescribing and Multiple Provider Episodes. The Journal of  Pain, vol. 13, No 2 (February), 2012: pp 103-111

Purpose of study

The primary purpose of this study is to determine the degree of prevalence of multi providers for various substances that have been controlled. In order to achieve this, the study used the largest prescription-monitoring program in US.

 A description of the sample

The study was based on analysing secondary data of the California PMP.

The data that was measured and evaluated

The results of the study were determined using data gathered in 2007. The researcher used a series of regressions in predicting the ratio of multiple prescriber episodes for each controlled substance using prescriptive and demographic variables.

The results of the research

The study found out that individuals who used a few providers were different from an individual who visited one prescriber in a period of one year. However, this lack of similarity does not suggest that these individuals are more prone to the misuse of prescription opioids.

Conclusions from the study

PMPs are systems of controlling drugs that are designed to identify and address diversion and abuse of prescription medications. This includes opioids. With the support of better understanding of the problems, these programs can assist public health providers to mitigate prescription opioid misuse effectively.

Conclusion

Healthcare practitioners need to come up with measures aimed at preventing episodes of medication diversion and multiple providers. Failure to do so will harm their ability to deliver reliable healthcare as well as ruin their long-standing reputation.

References

Byrne, M., Lander, L., & Ferris, M. (2009). The Changing Face of Opioid Addiction: Prescription Pain Pill Dependence and Treatment.  Journal of Health & Social Work, vol. 34(1): 53-56

Gilson, A, et al (2011). Time Series Analysis of California’s Prescription Monitoring Program: Impact on Prescribing and Multiple Provider Episodes. The Journal of Pain, vol. 13, No 2 (February), 2012: pp 103-111

Inciardi, J et al, (2009). Prescription Opioid Abuse and Diversion in an Urban Community: The Results of an Ultrarapid Assessment.  Journal Pain Medicine, vol. 10(3):537-48.

Wilsey, B, et al (2010).  Profiling Multiple Providers Prescribing Of Opioids, Benzodiazepines, Stimulants, and Anorectics. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 112: 99–106

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