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Microbiology Case Studies, Dissertation – Abstract Example

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Dissertation - Abstract

Case study 1:

The causative organism for the disorder experienced by the patient is Neisseria gonorrhoeae which is usually transmitted through sexual contact and many mucous membranes are infected by this microbe. The infection is spread majorly through the mucous membrane adhering vaginal, anal and oral organs of the human body (Sherk and Stephanie, 2006).

The major route of infection in Gonorrhoeae is vaginal inoculation which transmits during sexual contact and other being neonatal mode of infection which occurs during child birth through the birth canal. The risk factors in this disorder is unsafe sex, multiple sex partners, low economic status of the family, minority status of people of certain races, people possessing past history of sexually transmitted disease, young age of people participating in sex, people using intra uterine devices or those having history of pelvic inflammatory disease.

The antimicrobial agents prescribed in Gonorrhoeae are penicillins, tetracyclines and macrolides. The common drugs of these classes which are prescribed include Cefixime (Suprax) as a single dose treatment which acts by inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cefixime is often used as a drug of choice due to its increased efficacy and less cost when compared to other antimicrobials used for this disorder. The second drug of choice by the physicians in cases of Gonorrhoea is Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) which acts by inhibition of cell wall synthesis by binding to the Penicillin binding proteins. Rocephin however has many disadvantages like high cost and discomfort in administration. The third drug of choice in these kinds of infection is Spectinomycin (Trobicin) which is prescribed for patients with intolerance to beta-lactam and act by inhibition of protein synthesis in the cell walls. Other antimicrobial drugs which are used to treat milder versions of infections include Azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax), Doxycycline (Adoxa, Doryx), silver nitrate and erythromycin base (Sherk and Stephanie, 2006).

Case study 2:

The examination of this case study reveals that the patient is suffering from Oral Thrush. The causative organism for this disease is reported to be a fungus Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata which are present in the mouth. This kind of infection occurs in the people whose immune system is weak caused due to immunodeficiency, underlying health condition like AIDS, Cancer, people under administration of corticosteroids and those who have an injury in the mouth (Wiley and Blackwell, 2012).

The mode of infection in this disorder is its incidence through identified risk factors which include weak immune system, incidence of diabetes, old age, higher levels of blood sugar, improper or unhygienic dentures in the mouth, people who take large number of antibiotics, people under chemotherapy due to various underlying diseases and people who suffer from iron and vitamin-B deficiencies.

The antimicrobial drugs or antifungal agents available to treat oral thrush include Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Nystatin, Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Econazole and Ketoconazole. The drugs of choice in the cases of oral thrush depends on underlying characteristics of the patient which include age of the patient, ailments already suffering from, presence of any immunodeficiency disorders, regular intake of other anti-microbial drugs due to any other kind of disorders and extent of oral thrush infection. The types of antifungal treatments which are suitable for the present patient condition are Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Nystatin, Clotrimazole on a major extent and Miconazole, Econazole and Ketoconazole in circumstances of less infection (Wiley and Blackwell, 2012).

All the anti-fungal treatments are available in forms of tablets, lozenges, powders, creams and rinses. The patient however must be prescribed to start using these anti-fungal agents in form of creams and rinses as he is already on medications for treatment of AIDS.

Case study 3:

The careful examination of the case study indicates that the patient acquired this disorder due to close contact with small animals and the symptoms of swollen axial lymph nodes is due to the gram negative bacteria, Batronella henslea and Batronella clarridgeiae. The underlying disorder suffered by the patient is Innoculation lymphoreticulosis or cat scratch disease which is often transmitted by small animals (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2012).

The route of transmission in this disorder is through animals like cats, kittens, rabbits and fleas act as vectors for transmitting this infection to human beings in close contact. The source of infection from these animals is either faeces of these animals or across mucosal surface and scratch wound through which fleas act as vector for transmission. Tick bites could serve as other pathogenic vector.

The mode of treatment in this infection is through the use of antimicrobial agents applied topically at the site of swelling and orally to decrease the symptoms of fever, chills, headache and underlying cough. The antibiotics recommended as a first line of choice in this disorder is Azithromycin taken orally at the doses of 250 mg or 500 mg depending on the infection progress. In case if patient is immune competent with the causative organism, Azithromycin is replaced by doses of Ciprofloxacin at 250 mg and 500 mg. The other drugs which are second line choice and used in combination or alone are Doxycycline and Ampicillin (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2012).

References

Sherk, Stephanie. “Sexually Transmitted Diseases.” Gale Encyclopedia of Children’s Health: Infancy through Adolescence. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. 30 Apr. 2012 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

Wiley-Blackwell. “Wash your mouth out with silver, to treat hard-to-treat mouth infections?.”ScienceDaily, 8 Mar. 2012. Web. 30 Apr. 2012.

Bartonella henselae”.  Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 30 Apr. 2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1301572/Bartonella-henselae>

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