Pharmacology for Nurses: Mental Health Nursing, Article Review Example

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Article Review

Unit I & Unit II Questions

Chapter 1, Question 1

Patients choose OTC drugs over prescription drugs for several reasons. It can be difficult to find the time to visit a doctor and get a prescription filled, and it can also be expensive to see a doctor and to get prescriptions filled. Many patients may choose OTC drugs because they are more easily available, but it is important that patients take these medications according to their directions and watch for possible interactions with other drugs, supplements, or food.

Chapter 1, Question 4

Nurses are often directly involved in educating patients about how to take medications. They must also discuss reactions with patients so they know if the medications are working or if they are causing any adverse effects. Nurses also help to do clinical trials of drugs, and have to monitor how test subjects are reacting to drugs. Nurses are often the most important source of information for patients about the drugs they are prescribed how they might interact with other substances, and how well they are working.

Chapter 2, Question 1:

The two primary forms of classification for drugs are Therapeutic and Pharmacological. The first classification is more general, and it explains what diseases or conditions drugs are intended to treat. Pharmacological classification is more specific, and requires more education to understand. This describes what body systems and functions the drugs affect. Drugs such as Beta-Andrenergic blockers, Oral Contraceptives, and folic acid antagonists are classified as pharmacological, because they work on specific functions to achieve an effect. Laxatives and anti-anginal agents are more general, and are classified by their therapeutic uses.

Chapter 2, Question 3:

A pharmacist may save a patient money by switching him or her to a generic form of a brand-name drug. It is possible that the bioavailability of generic drugs may be different because of differences in manufacturing or other processes.

Chapter 3, Question 1:

Everyone in an organization is responsible for the safe administration and use of drugs, but nurses are ultimately on the front lines and bear the greatest responsibility. Mistakes can happen anywhere along the way, however, making it important to check and re-check everything before administering medications.

Chapter 3, Question 3:

Drugs are typically administered by mouth (orally); subcutaneously (under the skin); intra-muscularly/IM (into blood-vessel-rich muscle tissue); or intravenously/IV (directly into the veins). Oral drugs are susceptible to the first-pass effect, so some drugs have to be administered in easy that avoid this. Drugs that are injected require aseptic techniques to avoid getting bacteria into the bloodstream.

Chapter 4, Question 1:

Drugs have to pass through the various membranes in the body to get from the route of administration into the bloodstream and to the cells and tissues where they are needed. The first-pass effect, as well as each membrane and other barrier along the way, can reduce the potency and efficacy of medications, making it important to choose the best doses and routes of administration.

Chapter 4, Question 4:

If drugs are highly susceptible to the first-pass effect, they may need to be administered in other ways to make sure they are effective.

Chapter 6 Question 2:

The cheerleader may need a nursing diagnosis that recognizes her activity intolerance, meaning if she gets the pump she may not be able to be a cheerleader. The nurse will have to ensure there is no knowledge deficit for the young patient, and may also have to check for previous or current signs of non-compliance with other medications and with the other diagnoses.

Chapter 7 Question 2:

An 86-year-old patient who is having mild confusing and anxiety may not need Valium. He should first be checked for signs of some age-related issues such as polypharmacy to see if drug interactions are causing the problems. Other age-related issues could be causing confusion and anxiety, and the use of Valium could mask the problem and fail to treat the root causes.

Chapter 8 Question 3:

A Mexican migrant worker in the U.S. who speaks broken English probably does not have the financial resources to see doctors and dentists for preventive care. He may also now have much information about dental hygiene, or the means to adequately care for his teeth. Patients in his position may delay seeking medical treatment until it is an emergency simply because they do not have access to resources and information.

Chapter 9 Question 2:

The prescription Tylenol 3 PO q3-4 tells how to take the medication (orally) and how often to take it (every 3-4 hours), but it does not indicate how many tablets to take. It may be that the prescriber meant that as one tablet per does, but the nurse (and everyone else involved, such as pharmacists) should verify such information).

Chapter 10 Question 2:

Medications such as Coumadin and Lanoxin can have negative interactions with supplements such as garlic, ginseng and ginger. Garlic can increase the effect of Coumadin (warfarin) and ginseng can decrease it. Ginseng can also disrupt blood tests for Lanoxin. Nurses must always try to ensure that their patients are taking their medications safely, and are aware of possible interactions with other substances.

Chapter 11, Question 2:

A nurse who is treating this patient should offer her information about battered-woman shelters and other resources available to victims of domestic violence. There are also signs that her football-player husband is abusing drugs of some sort, and the patient should be steered towards information that can help her deal with being involved with someone with substance-abuse issues.

Chapter 12 Question 3:

The CDC is in charge of the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS), which is a supply of medications and medical supplies that is available for deployment to disaster sites, areas where chemical or biological attacks or outbreaks have taken place, or other national emergencies. SNS “push packages” include the basic, general supplies that are sent to disaster sites within the first few hours. Vendor-managed inventory (VMI) packages are put together after the specific chemical or biological agents have been identified, or after the other details of an emergency are known. These VMIs are individually tailored to suit the needs of medical personnel and victims at these disaster sites, and are sent following the push packages as needed.

Reference

Adams et al (2014, 2011, & 2008). Pharmacology for Nurses: a pathophysiologic approach. Pearson. Upper Saddle River, NJ. (4th Ed.).

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