Psychotherapy, Case Study Example

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Case Study

Background information

The client George his age not mentioned is an employee and a father of two. His son J.B is & years old and J.J the daughter is 3 years old. His wife Teresa whom her age not mentioned is crazy about her daughter’s condition of autism. George’s mother is a babysitter of L.B after school that the client says she is proficient with kids. Teresa’s sister unnamed by the client is a babysitter for J.J. The doctor says J.J is autistic and thus requires special services.

The therapist believes that this case has to do with behavior formation and misunderstanding. This applies to the client and his wife. Initial screening through interviewing of the family thus recommended before undertaking proper counseling and therapist needed.

Case history

George claims that she is not happy with the state of his wife and J.J, who according to Teresa’s behavior has changed due to J.J’s state of autism. The communication between George and his wife has changed owing to the fact that the wife will just cry when George gets home. Adding to the problem, George seems to be overworking. He says in addition to working 40-50 hours a week, he drops and picks J.B daily only to find his wife in a mess when he gets home. George was asking how he should go about the situation. Teresa no longer works since the birth of J.J, and this seems to stress George. He admits that Teresa used to be jovial.

Teresa’s condition need counseling as well as providing proper medication to J.J since it directly relates to her change in behavior. It is apparent that there is a division in the family; George and J.B in one side, Teresa, and J.J on the other side. The children do not get the full attention from both parents; this leads to misunderstanding and affects children’s social lives. It is a right for every child to be loved by both parents without biases. This is not the case in George’s family

Problem areas and discussion

Modern day challenges causes tensions in family and work relations. People are hardly able to cope with the stress associated with such tensions and conflicts. Breaking of families and disorientation in workplaces is some of the effects of such situations. Psychology is particularly beneficial in trying to mitigate situations such as faced by George and his family.

Psychological therapy involves therapeutic interaction between a therapist and the client. It involves psychological assessment a process of measuring and understanding psychological factors such as personality and behavior. The purpose of this assessment is to provide diagnosis for treatment setting, to assess an area of functioning or disability and select the treatment or assess treatment outcome (Taylor, 1997, p,24). Assessment in this case is the process of documenting in measurable terms one’s knowledge, attitude, emotions, and belief among other factors.

Psychological assessment takes two forms; formal and informal assessment. For George’s case and that of his family, I would select informal assessment as the most appropriate in trying to handle their problems. Informal assessment involves a process of gaining information to make a judgment about a person’s behavior and characteristics of programs using unstandardised methods. I chose it for it presents a holistic insight into the potential of an individual in a casual manner. The instruments used in informal assessment include observation, inventories, checklists, rating scales, performance and portfolio assessment, participation, peer and self-evaluation as well as discussion. Informal assessment is relatively cheaper, faster, and easy to administer. Solutions to problems thus found within reasonable span of time. Using informal assessment mechanisms, this can be interpreted and applied easily to complete the assessment process. The method is also purposeful focused to gather the information required.

In an attempt to help George and his family out of their problem, I have to first assess the whole situation. I will interview the family to gain information on the facts, events, and behavior that led to the current situation. I will engage George and his family in a thorough discussion while asking questions on his family setting, events, and family member’s individual behavior. A comprehensive and open discussion will help achieve an insight into individual member’s character. This will help me to link it with the problems facing the family at large. It will aid in finding ways of mending any relation breakage or affirming any loose linkage.

I will also take time to observe the family as whole and individual members separately. It will involve viewing and assessing that parties looking for behavior. For example, the way George and his wife respond to each other during discussion. Behavior such rudeness or unwillingness to talk, is an indicative of poor personal relationship between the two. Observation done within a period, but it can be instant.

I will have to run records of sequence of events that occurred in George’s family over time and its effects. This will indicate succeeding events that took place and how it may have led to some acts or behavior. It will help in locating the problem, the cause, and the time it started. It shall thus identify the cause of the problem and a preferable method of solving identified. In this case, before the birth of J.J, the family used to live happily but thereafter is when problems started. It could be that the problems started because of her birth or diagnosis of autism. The event may have affected Teresa’s behavior, which in turn affected George view of her. Running records of these events is thus a move towards seeking of its solution.

Event sampling will be crucial in identifying and solving the family’s problems. This will involve assessing whether an event relates to behavior. George says that when he arrives from work he finds his wife crying, so I have to assess whether she stops when he arrives or starts crying as soon as he leaves. If so, then the problem associates with his absence. It will also involve introducing some conditions; for example, seek medical attention for J.J and seeing whether Teresa gets a bit happier. The solution to the problem lies in the whole family, not George alone. It is thus necessary to see other members of the family in pursuit of the solution.

It is essential for me to interact with Teresa and her baby girl J.J. This is because they are key players of what led to the current situation. In one way or the other, they must have participated through acts and or omissions towards the disturbing family situation.

To assess Teresa, I will mainly interview her side of the story. I have to discuss with her anything and everything about her new behavior, and if at all, she notices if she has changed. Teresa should be able to give gainful information about anything she knows or beliefs in the cause of the situation of the family. I will need to ask if she is aware of her husband’s discontentedness on how she carries herself in the recent past. Her opinion on whether and when she wishes to get back to her job is one of George’s concerns. Her opinion about George and J.J are also crucial. Interviewing will enable her to explain her behavior.

Running record is the other appropriate assessment method for Teresa. It focuses on the sequence of events that have occurred and its relationship with the problem to this problem. It creates an insight into the behavior and associates it with an event. It analyses Teresa’s behavior before the birth of J.J and after. Through running records, I will be able to establish what brought about the change.

J.J and her condition may be closely linked to the cause of the situation facing the family. Analyzing J.J and his condition may be analyzing the problem itself. Making him happy may lead to the happiness of the family. Observation will be key in trying to assess J.J for any behavior, which may be stressing the family especially her mother. I will need to observe her behavior in her natural setting, a setting she is comfortable with and will have an opportunity to demonstrate her typical behavior. Her behavior will indicate whether it has contributed to her mother’s condition and influential in giving advice on the medical attention to be sought. A comprehensive review of her health and medical history is also essential. I will request her medical records to be able to assess her and give advice accordingly.

Psychological evaluation on the girl is also significant because her inability to perform as expected bothers George. Through this, I will assess the child’s cognitive, neuropsychological development, behavioral and emotional status, mental and emotional functioning, physical development, and personal characteristics (Cohen & Spenciner, 1998 p. 415). These evaluations will determine whether J.J is healthy or she needs medical attention. It is certain that her child’s condition will affect every parent J.J’s condition not exclusive. This method will help ascertain factors influencing the development of a child. By solving J.J’s problem, if any, we shall be assisting the family as a whole. The methods used to assess clients should best suit each situation.

Interview being the process of engaging in discussion and asking questions to the client is one of the most reliable ways of obtaining information. Talks held, and questions asked on events or characteristics of the concerned parties. It best suits George and Teresa in this situation for they are the ones who experience the situation and have candid facts of it. They can thus provide a comprehensive story of the family and their knowledge, understanding and belief of what the problem is. Through interviews, a clarification can be sought on points, which do not come out clearly. It also gives room for explanation and questions and answer the way of communicating. It is convenient because the response is immediate and the subject can be handled summarily in one sitting. Face to face, interviews suit George and Teresa’s situation for I can be able to obtain information through facial expression of the two. Interviews enable gaining of broad information required.

Running records is suitable for it tries to follow up events from start to the situation at hand. It focuses on the sequence of events that occur until the present. These events and the circumstances surrounding it are what accumulate to the current situation. The birth of J.J had enormous effects on the family. Running records, therefore, relates the past events and the current situation. Through it, the root source of the problem identified and dealt with appropriately. It is suitable because it avoids the recurrence of the problem.

Observation used in assessing George and J.J did suit the situation. It involved viewing and assessing the parties involved and making a finding. Through observation, I can pick out outward characteristics, which inter the person inside. An observation on George could show that he is a disappointed man while J.J could be found to be suffering from a medical condition. It brings out the basic characteristics of the client and thus determines the best way to handle him or her.

Psychological evaluation is the best method of examining J.J and making a finding on her condition. It is the best choice when trying to assess a client’s mental, physical, emotional and psychological abilities. It plays a critical role in choosing how to handle that client. The findings indicate the extent of liability the client has on the subject matter. After making a psychological assessment, a psychotherapist will know the best way to help the client. However, he should act within the profession’s ethical expectations.

Ethical consideration

The identified subjects would be screened and their behavioral attributes assessed with consideration of ethics studied. Each of the interviewee should be given consent forms for permission to interview them. I should explain the assessment procedures to follow during the assessment. I should serve each of the subjects unconditionally adhering to ethical guidelines regardless of their background ensuring that adhere to the profession ethics. I should maintain confidentiality on what I have discussed with my clients. At no material time should I disclose unless the client to harm himself or other person. I should also inform my client of the nature of my services and allow him to make an informed decision. All what the client says or does should be by choice and with full knowledge.

I should also ensure that all what takes place in my office is to safeguard my client’s welfare. My actions and those of my agents should be of the best interest of the client. Engagement with my client should also be in a way that ensures that there are no conflicting interests. I should avoid dual relationships, which may give rise to conflicting interests. It is ethical of me, and my agent not to have a sexual relationship with any of my clients. Such relationships are not only unethical but also unlawful. Therapist- client relationship should be reduced to business only. With ethical and legal issues considered, my clients’ interest easily met.

Conclusion and recommendation

In conclusion, the subject that would need counseling are George and Teresa. J.B will need childcare from her mother who will pay keen attention to his social life. J.J will need special medical services and IQ Test. Family therapy is recommended for George and Teresa to solve their differences and view of each other. George’s mother should take the responsibility of repairing her son’s issues with the wife.

In dealing with these problems, I should bear in mind that each of my clients is unique on himself. I am required to handle each client’s situation independently. I should choose the appropriate method of dealing with my client, for example, when assessing him or her. Putting client’s interest at heart and observing all ethical and legal requirements of the profession should be my objective.

References

Carr, W. (1983). Becoming Critical: Knowing through Action Research. Geelong: Darkin University.

Cohen, L. & Spenciner, L. (1998). Assessment of Children and Youth. New York, NY: Longman.

Koocher,G. & Keith, P. (1998). Ethics in Psychology: Professional Standards and Cases. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Taylor, R. (1997). Assessment Methods. Boston: Allyn and Boston.

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