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Qualitative Study, Article Critique Example

Pages: 7

Words: 1918

Article Critique

An article by Rustoen et.al (2009) evaluates the importance of effective pain management in patients facing hospitalization for cancer treatment and perceptions of these experiences. The article title provides a basic summary of the study that will be addressed and the potential impact of the study for nurses working with cancer patients experiencing pain (Rustoen et.al, 2009). The title is relatively brief and is important because it supports the purpose and intent of the study and its potential impact on the desired population group (Rustoen et.al, 2009). The background and credentials of the author are not addressed, other than to provide the affiliation of the lead author (Rustoen et.al, 2009).The study does not appear to be associated with any form of external funding, although the location of the research project is disclosed.

The study abstract is a single lengthy paragraph which conveys the importance of the study objectives, including a description of pain and its impact on cancer patients, along with a basic description of the study population, the type of cancer diagnosis, and the study design (Rustoen et.al, 2009). The abstract also describes a summary of the information gathered from the interviews and the necessity to increase pain management knowledge from a nursing-based perspective (Rustoen et.al, 2009). This section also conveys the importance of developing pain management strategies and techniques that are important and relevant in the lives of patients to improve their ability to tolerate pain, to recognize the symptoms, and to gain support from their nurse caregivers in this process (Rustoen et.al, 2009).

 

The introduction section is not marked as such but it provides a more detailed summary of the issues associated with pain management in patients with cancer (Rustoen et.al, 2009). There is a discussion of prior population-based studies as a means of addressing the primary concerns related to cancer pain in patients, using prior literature sources (Rustoen et.al, 2009). This section also provides the current weaknesses observed with existing pain management techniques and the necessity to better understand the role of nurses in this process (Rustoen et.al, 2009). This section also serves as the primary literature review for the article and describes some of the past research that has been conducted in regards to cancer-related pain management in this patient population (Rustoen et.al, 2009). The final part of this section also describes the purpose of the study and the necessity to recognize the experiences of cancer patients experiencing pain and the challenges that they face, as well as the type of nursing care that they have received, in addition to their needs and expectations associated with nursing care in this capacity (Rustoen et.al, 2009).

The methods section of the article describes the process of qualitative description, a technique that was used to convey the importance of patient experiences associated with the management of their cancer-related pain (Rustoen et.al, 2009). This section also describes the participant population, which was comprised of 18 cancer patients, including 11 females and 7 males (Rustoen et.al, 2009). Study participants were either diagnosed with prostate cancer (males) or breast cancer (females) and had experienced pain as a result of this diagnosis (Rustoen et.al, 2009). This description is important because it provides further evidence of the perspective sought through the patient interviews in order to achieve the desired objectives in an effective manner (Rustoen et.al, 2009).This section is successful in identifying the problem and purpose to be considered using the chosen research method.

The study design is described as qualitative description to obtain factual information from participant interviews to identify cancer-related pain management needs from a nursing-based perspective (Rustoen et.al, 2009). In addition, the data collection method that was chosen conveys the importance of selecting the appropriate participants and the utilization of interviewers with significant experience in cancer pain management (Rustoen et.al, 2009). Each interview was conducted in a semistructured manner and took place over a period of 30-90 minutes (Rustoen et.al, 2009). Patients were asked a number of questions, and the interviews were recorded and transcribed for detail (Rustoen et.al, 2009). The data analysis section describes the technique known as systematic text condensation in order to establish a better understanding of the interviews and their content (Rustoen et.al, 2009).

The study findings describe the demographics of the study population, along with descriptions of their pain and its level of intensity (Rustoen et.al, 2009). This was important because it provided additional support in achieving the study purpose to determine the impact of nursing care on pain management (Rustoen et.al, 2009). This section generated a number of different perspectives regarding the role of nurses in pain management in order to establish need for additional support and guidance for this patient population (Rustoen et.al, 2009).  The discussion section described the relevant directives that were identified during the interview process and the primary findings that were discovered, including the lack of understanding of nurse involvement in the treatment process (Rustoen et.al, 2009).

The discussion section is rather lengthy and provides a summary of the different findings that were derived from the interviews (Rustoen et.al, 2009). In addition, this section discusses some of the most important limitations in this process, including the lack of understanding of nursing roles in shaping outcomes for cancer patients experiencing pain (Rustoen et.al, 2009). These findings suggest that additional steps must be taken to better understand and recognize nursing roles and responsibilities in the treatment of cancer-related pain management (Rustoen et.al, 2009). The conclusion is effective in summarizing the article and the findings that were discovered through the qualitative method (Rustoen et.al, 2009).

Systematic Review

An article by Naga et.al (2013) considers the relevance of pain as an experience in order to capture a greater understanding of nursing and its role in pain management and related outcomes. The article title describes the study well and is brief and succinct, including the study purpose and the type of method that will be used (Naga et.al, 2013).  The study authors are listed on the first page of the article, along with their affiliations, and it does not appear that the researchers utilized any type of external funding in developing the study (Naga et.al, 2013). The abstract is of the appropriate length and provides a summary of the different issues and challenges that the study seeks to identify and address. The abstract is divided into several sections, including the background, which summarizes the study in a single sentence, along with a purpose to identify the reasons why the study is important (Naga et.al, 2013). In addition, the methods are briefly described to support the systematic review process, the results are conveyed briefly to address these findings, and the conclusion summarizes this section and addresses the potential for future studies (Naga et.al, 2013). Key words are also provided to address the primary topics to be considered (Naga et.al, 2013).

The introduction section describes the problem and purpose in greater detail, including a brief literature review to address cancer-related pain in the chosen population (Naga et.al, 2013). A concept known as the “cancer pain experience” is introduced in this section in order to demonstrate the potential impact of nursing care on quality of life and improved pain management for this population group (Naga et.al, 2013). The theoretical framework follows and describes the theory upon which the study will be conducted, also known as the Roy Adaptation Model (Naga et.al, 2013). This model is relevant because it supports the different concepts associated with cancer pain management and the needs of patients (Naga et.al, 2013).

The methodology section describes the manner in which the study was conducted by using a variety of databases to perform a systematic review, including CINAHL and EBSECO, amongst others (Naga et.al, 2013). Several key words were used to perform the systematic review, such as cancer pain and pain management (Naga et.al, 2013). The systematic review was comprised of 14 studies that evaluated a large number of cancer patients over a period of time (Naga et.al, 2013). This was imperative in order to establish a precedent for the role of cancer-related pain in this patient population (Naga et.al, 2013). Across these studies, a variety of research instruments were used to draw conclusions regarding cancer pain and effective management of this condition (Naga et.al, 2013).

The study findings section represents a means of exploring the different dimensions of the systematic review and the issues that were raised (Naga et.al, 2013). Some of the primary issues that were derived included pain location, the ability to respond to treatment, patient perceptions of pain, and other factors that played a role in the experiences of pain within the chosen studies (Naga et.al, 2013). Various types of pain analysis were used to draw conclusions regarding pain and how it impacts quality of life (Naga et.al, 2013). For example, sensory and physical variables must be considered by nurses when treating patients with cancer-related pain in order to accomplish the desired objectives (Naga et.al, 2013). In addition, this section describes the social and cultural indicators associated with cancer pain due to the potential severity of this condition (Naga et.al, 2013). The study findings also support the belief that communication by patients to their nurses and other outsiders is based upon effective communication; however, this is not always the case and therefore, some patients are unable to effectively express themselves in regards to their pain and its impact on their lives (Naga et.al, 2013). Therefore, nurses must work cooperatively with patients and allow them to express themselves regarding this type of pain so that nurses are able to treat them more effectively (Naga et.al, 2013).

The section entitled “implications for nursing” addresses the importance of specific factors associated with cancer-related pain in order to accommodate the needs of patients in an effective manner (Naga et.al, 2013). It is important to note that this section also conveys the necessity for nurses to utilize existing frameworks and guidelines in order to accomplish the desired objectives in an effective manner (Naga et.al, 2013). Many patients experience a number of different negative outcomes as a result of cancer-related pain that are difficult to overcome, including low mood and possible depression as a result of this experience (Naga et.al, 2013). Therefore, it is important to identify different factors from a nursing-based perspective that will ultimately support patient outcomes and effectiveness in a manner that is consistent with improved patient outcomes (Naga et.al, 2013). This includes an understanding of the different dimensions that will support and improve patient care and treatment with respect to cancer-related pain, such as physiological, behavioral, and sociocultural needs (Naga et.al, 2013).

The conclusion provides a simple yet concise summary of the study and its findings for future consideration (Naga et.al, 2013). It is imperative that nurses recognize the importance of different factors that are associated with nursing roles and responsibilities in treating patients experience cancer-related pain (Naga et.al, 2013). This population group is unique and requires its own level of support and guidance that is different from other types of pain management methods, due to the serious nature of cancer and its impact on patient wellbeing (Naga et.al, 2013). Therefore, it is important to identify specific factors that will be influential in enabling nurses to achieve effective treatment goals and objectives for this population group over time (Naga et.al, 2013).

References

Naga, BSHB, Al-atiyyat, NMH, and Kassab, M.I. (2013). Pain experience among patients receiving cancer treatment: a review. Journal of Palliative Care & Medicine, 3(3), 1-4.

Rustoen, T., Gaardsrud, T., Leegaard, M., and Wahl, A.K. (2009). Nursing pain management – a qualitative interview study of patients with pain, hospitalized for cancer treatment. Pain  Management Nursing, 10(1), 48-55.

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