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Quantitative Peer-Reviewed Study Critique, Article Critique Example

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Article Critique

Introduction

Quantitative peer-reviewed studies are an important component of modern nursing practice, as they provide evidence regarding different approaches to common diseases and other concerns that impact nurses’ work with patients. These research projects engage the knowledge and expertise of nurses in identifying new methods to treat common problems and to recognize different factors that may impact a given disease state. This is an important opportunity to evaluate the different perspectives that nurses possess regarding quality of care and other objectives that impact their daily practice settings. For example, patients with type 2 diabetes face an uphill battle with respect to this condition; therefore, they must be provided with a framework for growth and change that will have a positive impact on their care and treatment, directly from a healthcare provider and in the home environment. There are critical factors to consider that play a role in diabetes self-care and management that are based upon existing knowledge and practical approaches to this condition as it impacts large groups of patients. A quantitative approach to research in type 2 diabetes provides further insight regarding the impact of self-management on the disease state and improving quality of care for this patient population. Therefore, an examination of these studies is essential to further address the importance of self-care and its influence on patients. The following discussion will address a quantitative research study that was designed to provide a systemic review of factors that have a direct impact on type 2 diabetes self-management and education for the large affected population throughout the world. This examination will include critical factors that have a direct impact on patients, such as diet, exercise, medication administration, and general knowledge of the disease, and how their level and scope of knowledge impacts the self-care that they administer in the home environment.

Analysis

A study by Bagnasco, Di Giacomo, Da Rin Dellamora, Catania, Turci, Rocco, & Sasso (2014) provides a quantitative systematic review of the factors that impact type 2 diabetes self-care in the home environment. Due to the complex nature of this disease and its broad-ranging influence on many patient populations, it is more important than ever to provide effective resources and guidance to positively influence patient outcomes and to support a continued level of growth and development to improve practice for patients who must provide self-care at home (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). Many patients experience significant difficulties associated with controlling blood glucose levels; therefore, they may experience microvascular concerns that could further advance the disease state (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). From this perspective, it is necessary to provide patient education for the following reasons: “Self-management education guides and helps these patients to take decisions, resolve problems, learn self-care behaviours and set up an active collaboration with the team of health professionals. This leads to improved clinical outcomes, health status and quality of life, optimal cost–benefit ratios” (Bagnasco et.al, 2014, p. 189). These factors represent an opportunity to explore the different dimensions of type 3 diabetes self-care and how this knowledge is translated into real-time care in the home environment in an effort to stabilize blood glucose on a more consistent basis in these patients (Bagnasco et.al, 2014).

The quantitative study was conducted in an effort to determine if individual characteristics have any sort of impact on how self-management is addressed for patients with type 2 diabetes, given the challenges associated with this condition and the factors that impact patient care on a larger scale, particularly in the home environment when health care experts are not available (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). These characteristics include demographics, psychosocial concerns, social-cultural concerns, knowledge of the disease, cognitive concerns, and depression, amongst others (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). These factors represent a challenge to researchers because they are likely to have an impact on type 2 diabetes patients in very different ways, all of which has a significant impact on patient care outcomes for this group over time (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). In addition, the term “self-management” is considered further in order to recognize the ability of education to be effective in achieving greater self-management for this group of patients (Bagnasco et.al, 2014).

The study design was conducted in accordance with the Centre for Reviews & Dissemination, using the PICOS questions of participants (type 2 diabetes patients), interventions (self-management education), comparisons (no comparisons conducted), outcomes (self-management behaviors and personal characteristics), and study design (RCT, cohort studies, and Ct) (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). The study review included patients with type 2 diabetes over the age of 18 who are currently taking medications for the disease (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). According to the authors, self-management is defined in the following manner: “the person’s ability to manage symptoms, treatment, the physical and psychosocial consequences and changes in lifestyle that living with a chronic disease implies” (Bagnasco et.al, 2014, p. 190). Therefore, actions related to lifestyle choices such as diet, exercise, adherence to drug therapy, and monitoring blood glucose levels are considered to be self-management techniques, along with other possible factors such as foot care (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). Study outcomes aimed to address specific self-care behaviors, in addition to HbA1C levels to identify the specific level of glycemic control that currently exists (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). These factors provide further evidence regarding general trends in diabetes self-care and how they impact patients, given specific personal characteristics and other factors (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). These concerns represent an opportunity to explore the different dimensions of diabetes self-care and how it impacts health and wellbeing (Bagnasco et.al, 2014).

The study used databases such as MEDLINE, DARE, and Joanna Briggs in order to identify studies that specifically addressed type 2 diabetes self-care, as well as CINAHL and the Cochrane Library, including peer-reviewed articles and doctoral theses to identify a group of eligible studies (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). Search terms were modified as necessary in order to identify a comprehensive study listing, and a quality appraisal was conducted in order to determine areas that might be subject to bias (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). Data was derived using the designated inclusion and exclusion criteria, in addition to the following criteria: 1) study features; 2) study characteristics; 3) participant characteristics; 4) self-management educational intervention; 5) setting; 6) outcome; 7) HbA1c measures; 8) personal characteristics; and 9) study results (Bagnasco et.al, 2014).
Study synthesis was determined by using a concept map and used PRISMA criteria for further evaluation (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). As the study moved forward, additional factors were considered in order to further define the study objectives and the characteristics that are most relevant in self-management for type 2 diabetes care in the home environment (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). In addition, factors related to empowerment and motivation are also considered as a means of achieving a greater understanding of self-management care as associated with these characteristics (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). By using the PICOS format to identify studies and to conduct the analysis, these personal characteristics could be further examined in order to accomplish the study objectives and to determine how to best move forward with self-care education in future studies and in real-time practice settings (Bagnasco et.al, 2014). This quantitative analysis provided greater insight into the challenges of type 2 diabetes self-management in the home environment and how it impacts patients and their ability to regulate their blood glucose levels on a consistent basis in order to reduce the risks associated with the condition that could have lasting and devastating impacts on patients when blood glucose control is not achieved (Bagnasco et.al, 2014).

Conclusion

Type 2 diabetes is a challenging and difficult condition to treat due to the precarious nature of the disease and an inability to regulate blood glucose levels. As a result, it is important to identify the resources that are necessary to address patient outcomes and to determine methods of self-care that are aligned with the personal characteristics exhibited by each patient. In this context, the quantitative systematic review sought to better understand the impact of these characteristics on self-care management in order to improve quality of life and address the different challenges that type 2 diabetes patients face throughout their lives. This research study demonstrated the importance of identifying key terms in order to solidify the study purpose and design, and to provide further insight regarding the potential impact of these challenges in achieving effective patient care outcomes.

This study provides a quantitative approach to examine other studies that share common themes regarding patient care and treatment, and to recognize the value of achieving a consensus regarding type 2 diabetes self-management and education for large groups of patients. Although personal characteristics play a critical role in this process, a number of these characteristics appear to overlap and provide a basis for exploring new insights regarding how to educate type 2 diabetes patients regarding this condition and the factors that have the greatest level of influence in this process. This will ensure that patient care outcomes are optimized and provide the greatest possible level of support to achieve greater quality of life for this population.

References

Bagnasco, A., Di Giacomo, P., Da Rin Della Mora, R., Catania, G., Turci, C., Rocco, G., & Sasso, L. (2014). Factors influencing self‐management in patients with type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review protocol. Journal of advanced nursing, 70(1), 187-200.

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